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Unit 5 Bio Dempsey
Terms in this set (68)
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
Law of Segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
sister chromatids separate
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
A characteristic in which an allele that expresses its phenotype even in the presence of a recessive allele
genetic makeup of an organism
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis: one division forming 2 identical cells (clones); Meiosis: two divisions forming 4 genetically different cells
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
1. starts with pairing of homologous chromosomes, separates each pair, produces two daughter cells(each with 1 set of chromosomes).
2. Sister chromatids separate, results in four haploids.
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
To count the number of chromosomes...
Count the number of centromeres
the two new cells that result from mitosis and cytokinesis
the process of making a copy of DNA
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
another name for meiosis I, the division where homologous pairs separate.
4 unique, haploid gametes as daughter cells
sources of variation in meiosis
Meiosis produces new combinations of alleles by breaking up existing combinations in a diploid cell. Every cell produced by meiosis in an individual is likely to carry a different combination of alleles, because of crossing over and independent orientation of bivalents.
Pairing of homologous chromosomes
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Chromosome theory of inheritance
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
specific location of a gene on a chromosome
tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together
Standard Deviation Formula
A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes.
How is gender determined?
Gender is determined by the chromosomes provided by the ovum and sperm at the moment of conception. The female contributes the X chromosome. The male contributes either an X or a Y chromosome.
● An XX grouping produces a female offspring.
● An XY grouping produces a male offspring.
guidance for prospective parents on the likelihood of genetic disorders in their future children
When are cells haploid?
end of meiosis 1 and 2
What are Mendel's Laws?
Law of Segregation
Law of Dominance
Law of independent assortment
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
When do alleles segregate?
during the formation of gametes
Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.
When determine percentages for traits in females and males
Compare to the same sex.
Ex. If there are two XcYc and two XCYC, there would be a 100 percent chance of getting a male with colorblindness or a 100 percent chance of getting a female with typical vision.
Traits that demonstrate polygenic inheritance
skin color, eye color, hair color, body shape, height, and weight
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
How does nondisjunction occur?
spindle fibers break in meiosis sending both homologues to the same daughter cells
a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
Born with a single X chromosome. (short, webbed neck, different physical sexual development.)
How to use a pedigree
- = married(sexual relationship)
A pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome, so that males are more likely to be affected
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (chromosomes 1-22)
female, fertile, taller than average, some learning disabilities
Two Y chromosomes and an x
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
spermatogenesis vs oogenesis
Spermatogenesis: 4 gametes made, no polar bodies; Oogenesis: 1 gamete and three polar bodies
When are polar bodies formed?
during female meiosis
When does homologous recombination occur?
unequal division of the cytoplasm occurs in the
production of egg cells
disjunction is the. process whereby
homologous chromosomes separate into two cells
A cell that is n (haploid)
can't undergo meiosis
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