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review sheet (blood vessels)
Terms in this set (59)
Name the location where metabolites exchange by diffusion with the tissues and the cells.
Where does blood enters while returning from the systemic circuit?
Explain the correct order of blood flow in the heart.
Blood enters the heart through two large veins, the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from the body into the right atrium. ... As the ventricle contracts, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and to the lungs where it is oxygenated.
The process of decrease in any vessel diameter that occurs due to smooth muscle contraction is called...
The muscular layer of a blood vessel is the
Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue?
The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called
Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?
The layer of the arteriole wall that can contains smooth muscle and can produce vasoconstriction is the.................
Capillaries that have a complete lining are called....................
Capillaries with a perforated lining are called..............
After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the........................
Sinusoids can be found in the........................
liver, bone marrow, lymphoid tissue and some endocrine glands
________ are multiple arteries that fuse in order to serve a single capillary network.
________ refers to all the factors that resist blood flow in the entire circulatory system.
Total peripheral resistance
The main control of peripheral resistance by the vasomotor centers occurs in the
Where is blood pressure highest? Hint: Blood vessels
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ________ pressure.
As blood travels from arteries to veins, blood pressure.......................
if a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be ________ mm Hg.
________ are the only blood vessels whose walls are thin enough to permit blood-tissue exchange.
Materials can move across capillary walls by............(process)
diffusion, filtration, and osmosis
The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the
concentration of plasma proteins
The vascular pressure that declines from roughly 35 mm Hg to about 18 mm Hg is the..........
capillary hydrostatic pressure
The hormone that produces cardiovascular effects similar to activation of the sympathetic nervous system is.............
________ is the regulation of blood flow by local mechanisms within a capillary bed.
What part of brain contains sensory neurons that are part of chemoreceptor reflexes?
What will happen to pH due to decrease in blood CO2 levels in blood?
How does body defend blood volume against dehydration?
It accelerates reabsorption of water at the kidneys
Angiogenesis refers to
the growth of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels.
The systemic circuit delivers oxygenated blood to ________ and returns blood to the________.
body organs, right atrium
The superior vena cava collect blood from the.................. (Parts of body).
Head and arms
Describe the pulmonary circuit
Ejects blood into the pulmonary trunk
Powered by the right side of the heart
Describe the systemic circuit
transports blood to and from the rest of the body
Which chamber of the heart receives blood from the systemic circuit?
List the five general classes of blood vessels.
arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
Describe a capillary
A capillary is a small blood vessel whose thin wall permits exchange between blood and interstitial fluid by diffusion.
Identify the two types of capillaries with a complete endothelium.
continuous capillaries and Fenestrated Capillaries
Where are fenestrated capillaries located in the body?
Brain, endocrine gland, small intestine And the kidney
Why are valves located in veins but not in arteries?
Valves in veins prevent blood from flowing backward whenever the venous pressure drops
Describe the distribution of total blood volume in the body. Percentage
The volume is divided into the systemic venous system (64%), systemic arterial system (13%), in the heart (7%),
pulmonary circulation (9%), and systemic capillaries (7%).
What factors are involved in the formation of varicose veins?
Any condition that puts excessive pressure on the legs or abdomen
Which is greater: arterial pressure or venous pressure?
Why is it beneficial for capillary pressure to be very low?
because it helps speed up the flow of blood into the venous system
List the factors that contribute to total peripheral resistance.
Blood vessel diameter, blood viscosity, and total vessel length.
Explain the equation R α 1/r4.
Change in radius (r) affects resistance (R) to 4th power
Which would reduce peripheral resistance: an increase in vessel length or an increase in vessel diameter?
an increase in vessel diameter?
Calculate the mean arterial pressure for a person whose blood pressure is 125/70.
88.3 mm Hg
Under what general conditions would fluid move into a capillary?
When blood colloid osmotic pressure is greater than capillary hydrostatic pressure.
a condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.
Define tissue perfusion
Tissue perfusion is blood flow to tissues sufficient to deliver adequate oxygen and nutrients.
Describe autoregulation as it relates to cardiovascular function.
the blood flow to tissues sufficient to deliver adequate oxygen and nutrients.
Identify the hormones responsible for short-term regulation of decreasing blood pressure and blood volume.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
How does the kidney respond to vasoconstriction of the renal artery?
Vasoconstriction of the renal artery would decrease both blood flow and blood pressure at the kidney. In
Response, the kidney would increase the amount of renin it releases, which in turn would
increase the level of angiotensin II. The angiotensin II would bring about increased
blood pressure and increased blood volume
Describe the roles of the natriuretic peptides.
The roles of these peptides are to trigger responses whose combined effects are to decrease blood volume and decrease blood pressure.
Where are chemoreceptors located?
carotid and aortic bodies
What effect does an increase in the respiratory rate have on CO2
Reduces CO2 levels
Describe the respiratory pump.
Pressure changes occurring in the ventral body cavity during breathing create the respiratory pump that moves blood up towards heart.
Name the immediate and long-term problems related to hemorrhage.
short-term problem during hemorrhaging is maintaining adequate blood pressure and
peripheral blood flow; the long-term problem is restoring normal blood volume
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