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Old Testament (History & Law) Final Exam
Terms in this set (121)
What are the unique characteristics of Esther?
- No mention of God
- Never quoted in the NT
- Mordecai and Ester not very spiritual
What is the key text in Esther?
God keeps the Jews from being destroyed.
What do we know about the author of Esther?
- Unknown. The date estimates to be 483-473
What conclusion have some scholars made about the book and its Jewish characters because of these unique characteristics?
- They are Jews by ethnic origin, not by active faith.
What is the purpose of Esther?
- To display God's faithful preservation of the Jews.
What is the foundational covenant for the book?
- The covenant with Abraham, with God's promise.
What feast is begun to remember the deliverance of the Jews?
- Feast of Purim
What two things have we learned from Esther at the close of the book?
- Jews, even if unbelieving and disobedient, are protected by God
- God can be trusted to protect his people.
What 2 perceptive comments does Mordecai make to Esther?
- If Esther does not act, relief and deliverance will come from another source
- Esther may have been Chosen as queen for this.
What do we know about the author of Nehemiah?
Nehemiah writes most of it in first narrative.
When must the book have been written?
- About 430
When do the events of Nehemiah take place?
- The third return of exiles from Babylon under the leadership of Nehemiah, 14 years after Ezra's death.
What is the purpose of Nehemiah?
To explain the people's obedient response to God's faithful restoration of Jerusalem.
When Ezra reads the Law who helps explain the reading to the people?
The people respond to the reading of the law by Ezra, with the aid of the priests to explain the reading to the people.
In how many days do the returned exiles rebuild the walls?
The returned exiles rebuild the walls in 52 days.
What leadership role does Nehemiah assume over the returned exiles?
The events of the book surround the third return of exiles from Babylon under the leadership of Nehemiah in 445, 13 years after Ezra's return.
What three things are true at the close of Nehemiah?
- All three groups of exiles return from exile
- Judah and Jerusalem are starting to get back in their feet
- The people commit to keep the covenant.
What are the four responses of the people to the reading of the Law
- Confessing their sins
- Sinning the pledge to keep the covenant
- Resettling Jerusalem
What does Nehemiah do in response to the report on Jerusalem in Nehemiah 1-2?
- Acts: ask Artaxerxes to go to Jerusalem.
What two events stand out in the book?
- Jerusalem's walls are rebuilt under God's protection.
- The covenant is "rebuilt" (the people rededicate themselves to God)
What do we know about the authorship of 1-2 Kings?
- Unknown but probably one person. They had several named sources: Book of the Acts of Solomon and the book of the Chronicles of the King of Judah and Israel.
Who always remains as a king of Judah? Why?
- A son of David remains as king of Judah no matter what, because of the unconditional promise to David.
What is Israel like before the split in 931?
In 931, before the split, the nation is strong, united, and prospering.
What happens to Israel in 722 B.C.? What is Judah like after this event?
- In 722, half of the nation (Israel) is destroyed. The other half (Judah) is weak and vulnerable to its enemies.
What happens to Judah in 586 B.C.?
- In 586, Judah is carried off in exile for 70 years.
What is another term for the Northern Kingdom and what is its capital?
- Israel Ephraim (Samaria)
What is another term for the Southern Kingdom and what is its capital?
- Judah Jerusalem
Whose advice does Rehoboam take concerning taxes.
- Rehoboams foolish decision. The people ask for tax relief. Rehoboam receives counsel from his old and his young advisors and listens to the young advisors' words.
How do the 10 tribes respond to Rehoboam this decision?
- They respond by saying 'See Ya!'
What does Jeroboam do when he is warned about the idolatry?
- Jeroboam is warned about the idolatry, but he does not stop and is judged by God- he will be removed, and his name wiped out.
What does Rehoboam begin in Judah?
- Rehoboam begins idolatry in Judah and is looted by Egypt.
Which Israelite king does more evil than ever before according to 1 Kings 16? What is the name of his son who then surpasses him in evil?
- Omri as king does more evil than ever before only to be surpassed by Ahad in evil.
What does God show his control over through the prophet Elijah?
- God shows his control over both nature and idols through Elijah
What is God willing to do when Ahab mourns his fate?
- Even so, god relents when Ahab mourns his fate.
Who settled in Israel's former lands? Who did these people worship?
- Other ethnic groups are settled in Israel's former lands in Samaria, setting up false worship of Yahweh along with all of the other pagan gods.
What does it mean to profane God?
- The profaning of God, to treat him as like all of the other Gods.
What did this king reintroduce?
- Manasseh reintroduces idolatry and pagan practices.
How did God respond to the sin of this king?
- Gods response to Manasseh? Judah will go to exile.
Who delays God's judgment on Judah?
- Josiah's great revival delays the judgement
Why does God not relent?
- God does not relent because of Manasseh
How does 2 Kings end on a tentative note of hope?
Little hope is indicated for Judah.
How is God portrayed throughout the Old Testament?
- On the contrary, god is portrayed throughout the OT as moving slowly and regretfully toward this judgment, like he wished he didn't have to do it.
Was the Lord quick to cast his people out of the land?
- The Lord was not quick to cast his people out of the land.
How did God use the ungodly empires of Assyria and Babylon?
- The lord used the ungodly empires of Assyria and Babylon as instruments of Judgement upon his people Israel.
What was the name of the king who took Judah into captivity?
- Soon after Josiah's death, the Babylonians (Chaldeans persecute and finally take Judah off into captivity.
How many phases of deportation were there?
- There were 3 phases of deportations.
o 605BC: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishaal, and Azariah
o 597BC: Ezekiel, Jehoiachin
o 568BC: Zedekiah and many other Judeans.
Who bears ample witness to God's patience with his people and to his repeated efforts to call the people back to faithfulness within the covenant?
- The OT prophets bear ample witness to God's patience with his people and to Gods repeated efforts to call them back to faithfulness within the covenant.
When may the author have started writing? What does the author refer to that may assist us in determining the date? What does the author not mention?
- Soon after the start of the Babylonian Captivity (c.550). He refers to the destruction of Jerusalem and Judah taken to Babylon but does not mention the return from Babylon.
When was 1-2 Kings likely written?
- Soon after the events in the book conclude, somewhere in the middle of the Babylonian exile in the mid-500's
How is the literary structure of 1-2 Kings like 1-2 Samuel?
Originally one book with no major break
What is Solomon faithful to build?
- The Temple
What does Solomon ask from God in 1 Kings 3? How does God respond?
Wisdom to rule. God grants Solomon's request then God prospers him like no other king in Israel
What does God promise to do to Solomon?
- To bless him, but the promise is conditional.
How do we reconcile God's conditional blessing of Solomon with the unconditional promise to David in 2 Samuel 7 (2 reasons)?
- Each son of David must follow God to prosper.
- If they do not, God will put another son of David on the throne in their place.
What does the building of Solomon's house symbolize?
- As God's presence is established in the nation, the king is also established with a firm rule
What does the section about the United Kingdom in 1 Kings 1-11 explain?
The initial deterioration of the nation after it reaches its greatest power
What is the purpose of 1-2 Kings?
To evaluate the rise and fall of Israel because of the disobedience of the kings.
What are the 3 major sections of 1-2 Kings?
- United Kingdom: David and Solomon
- Divided Kingdom: Israel and Judah
- Kingdom of Judah
What event does 1 Kings begin with? What event does 2 Kings end with?
- Begins with David who is very old and his successor in question. Ends nothing King Jehoiachin's release from prison in Babylon.
What three things are true at the end of 1-2 Kings?
- Israel splits and declines greatly from its glory days
- The northern kingdom is destroyed/ southern kingdom is exiled to Babylon
- Little hope is indicated for Judah.
Who was Hilkiah and what did he find?
- The high Priest who finds the Law in temple.
What did the reading of the Law prompt Josiah and the people of Judah to do?
- They repent, leading to renewal of the covenant and great reforms of Judah.
What happens soon after Josiah's death?
- The Babylonians persecute and finally take Judah off into captivity.
Who takes Judah into captivity?
Who was Jehoiada and what actions did he take to combat Athaliah? How was he rewarded for his actions?
- A priest who puts Joash, the rightful king, on the throne, executes Athaliah, leads the people to make a covenant with God and Joash, the cleanses the temple. Jehoiada is buried with the kings.
What was the Assyrian strategy for conquering people groups? How does this differ from the Babylonian strategy? What about Rome's strategy?
- To mix them with other ethnic groups across the empire vs Babylonians exiled whole nations together in their lands vs. Rome who kept the conquered nation in their own land but imposed Roman law.
What is God's message to Israel regarding repentance? How does this anticipate the New Covenant?
He is ready to forgive if you will return to him. However, lasting repentance must come from a changed heart, laying the foundation for the promises of the New Covenant
What four points summarize the story of this period?
- Israel experiences terrible problems and unrest
- Each king is worse than the previous one
- Power struggle are constant for the then with several families wiped out.
- The reason is the sin of Jeroboam
Why is the end of Solomon's life tragic? What are the immediate and long-term consequences for him and for the nation?
- Because he wanders from the Lord consequences are Hadad the Edomite, Rezon and Jeroboam and the long-term results is that most of the tribes will be taken from David's dynasty (only Judah will remain)
Which nation experiences more stability on the throne and in the nation?
What is Elisha demonstrating about God through all the miracles he performs?
- God's mercy to his needy people.
Who was the queen that seized the throne and killed the crown princes?
What were the two foolish things done by Ahab?
- A treaty with Syria
- Steals Naboth's Vineyard
What appeal does God make to Israel in 1 Kings 18?
- God is ready to forgive
What does 1 Kings 17-2 Kings 8 primarily show?
Israel and its sinking into total rebellion against God.
Which two prophets are God's primary voice in Israel from 1 Kings 17 to 2 Kings 8? What is shown about God through these two prophets?
- Elijah and Elisha. Through them, god is shown to be completely in control.
How long is the sin of Jeroboam perpetuated?
- Throughout the entire duration of the Northern Kingdom
How will Jeroboam be judged by God?
- His sin was perpetuated throughout the kingdom and his name will be wiped out.
What is Caution #2?
- Observe the literary style of interchange in 1-2 King, covering this period
What behavior characterizes the entire history of the Northern Kingdom?
It completely forsakes God for the idols in every generation. Its wiped out in 722.
How is the Southern Kingdom different than the Northern Kingdom?
Judah wavered from generation to generation. Going into captivity in 596
Which kingdom returns from exile? How many years have passed?
- Judah after 70 years
What was the name of Solomon's son? How many tribes rebelled against him?
- Rehoboam and ten tribes rebelled against him.
Who do the 10 northern tribes unite under?
What is Jeroboam's first act as king? Why does he do this act?
- Set up idols worship in the north to keep the northern tribes from worshipping in Jerusalem in the south.
Who is the high point in the section 2 Kings 18-25? Why? Who is the only king regarded as greater than this king?
- Hezekiah recuasse he is a good king who served God removed the idols, and trusted God. Only David is regarded greater than him.
Who was the worst king Judah ever had?
What two groups dominate the period of the Divided Kingdom? In what ways do they influence the kingdoms?
- Kings: as kings go so does the nation. If the kings serves God, then the nation prospers.
- Prophets: through their words & actions speak for God. They warn, rebuke, and encourage the people.
What is Caution #1?
- To understand this period of Biblical literature, discriminate between the northern and southern kingdoms.
How does the Davidic line of kings do in serving and obeying God over the next 400 years?
What do we know about the author of the book of Ezra?
- Not named but point to Ezra
What is the purpose of Ezra?
- To encourage the remnant to depend on God fully, shown through temple worship and obeying the law.
What is the climactic event in Ezra (Ezra 9-10)?
- When the people dissolve their sinful marriages to foreigners in order to dedicate themselves to serve God
In Ezra 3:10-13, how do the people respond when the foundation is laid for the Temple? Why?
- The priests and Levities rejoice but the old men weep because it is noting like Solomon's temple.
What three things are true at the end of Ezra?
- Two groups of exiles have returned to Judah
- The temple is rebuilt
- The people recommit to keep the covenant.
In how many groups do the Jews return to the land?
The Jews return to the land in three groups
When was the book of Ezra likely written?
The book was probably written soon after the book's events in about 450.
Why are the first exiles allowed to return to Judah? Why does Cyrus let them go? Which prophets are probably influencing Cyrus?
- It was the result of prophetic activity. Daniel or Isaiah
How does Ezra respond to the news of the exiles marrying Gentiles?
Ezra finds that many of the returned exiles, even the levities, had married Gentiles, leading Ezra to enter into mourning and prayer.
What is Ezra's radical solution?
The people dissolve their marriages with the Gentiles.
What does his solution show about the sanctity of marriage?
The Shock makes the point: even the sanctity of marriages is not as important as the nation remaining separate from their Gentile neighbors - it is their only hope of survival and blessing.
What events in the lives of David and Solomon did the Chronicler not record? Why did he omit these events?
- David: bought the Ark of Jerusalem prepared the construction of the temple, and repair leadership for the worship ritual
- Solomon: to prosper under God's blessing worship at the temple as the nation did under him
In what sense is 1-2 Chronicles an "historical polemic?" Why does the author review Israel's history?
- Urges the people to devote themselves to worshiping God at the temple because it is their only hope for survival. To use as a reason to persuade the retubed exiles to remain devoted to God
What do we know about the author of 1-2 Chronicles?
How do 1-2 Chronicles relate to and overlap 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings?
Covers the same historical period
When does the book appear to be written? Why?
What events span the books of 1-2 Chronicles?
From the death of Saul (1010) to the decree of Cyrus to rebuild the temple (530)
What is the purpose of 1-2 Chronicles?
- To persuade the returned nation to worship God at the temple following the priests lead.
Where is the nation when the Chronicler is writing and what are they trying to do?
- Back in their land.
Why does the Chronicler highlight Israel's power and prosperity after Solomon builds the Temple and does not mention his sin?
- The Chronicler records selective highlights of David's life: David bringing the Ark to Jerusalem, David preparing for the construction of the Temple, and David preparing the leadership for the worship ritual.
o The author does not record David's sin with Bathsheba, and the civil was with Absalom.
What always follows the sins of Judah in 2 Chronicles 10-36?
What does Jehoiada the priest illustrate about leadership in the nation after the exile?
- The increasing importance of the priests in Judah.
What happens after Jehoiada's death?
Joash wanders from God and kills Joash's son Zechariah.
How does 2 Chronicles end?
- Positively - hope of the temple being built
- The temple stands and is ready to use.
What are the four major sections of 1-2 Chronicles?
- David: preparation for the temple
- Solomon: the temple built
- Southern kings: temple worship services
How does he use Israel's history as the reason to persuade the returned exiles to remain devoted to God and Temple worship (three ways)?
- By showing that David was devoted to God and the temple, even before it was built
- By showing the nation's great wealth and power when the construct the temple and worship God there.
- By showing that the temple is an enduring place of God's presence.
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