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History Unit 1 study Guide
Terms in this set (96)
Luthers 95 theses attacked abuses of the church
Salvation was a piece of paper or documents signed by a church official that released the bearer from all or part of the punishment for sin
Calvinism was the first protestant faith
Desiderius Erasmus was best-known Christian humanist
Christian humanism combined classical learning with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church
Justification was the belief that God determined in advance who would be saved
Jesuits used education to spread the Catholic faith
Henry VIII had his marriage to Cathrine of Aragon annulled
Anabaptists considered the priests and the pope to be better than other believers
The Council of Trent was a series of meetings that denounced Catholic teachings
Montesquieu studied a system of government in which separation of powers caused the parts of the government to control and limit each other.
Deism was a religious philosophy based on faith and the rule of God.
Laissez-faire is an economic doctrine that says the state should control the economy
Rousseau argued that society should be governed by the military
The goal of enlightenment thinkers was to use the scientific method to keep society the same
the revolutionary change of the Neolithic revolution allowed humans to
live in settlements
The Mauryan empire
preceded the Gupta empire in India
What did the greeks contribute to western civilization
philosophy, literature, art, and politics
The first flourishing Chinese civilization is marked by the
founding of the Shang dynasty, which was quickly replaced by the Zhou dynasty
The Roman Empire
was the basis for much of Western civilization
Early mosques testify to
advancements in art and architecture
The following were early Chinese dynasties
Sui, Tang, Song, Mongol, Ming
The Indian ocean enabled African trade, in addition to bringing
The civilizations of the Americas
built elaborate cities and placed high value on religion
The period of 500 to 1500 in India can best be described as
religious upheaval and internal and external struggles
The Italian states played a crucial role in politics because
their economic power
Machiavelli's view influenced political activity because he believed
politics should not be influenced by moral principles and justified abuse of power
Which group made up the majority of the European population?
Which of the following is a reason Italy was more urban than the rest of Europe
The thriving trade networks drew people to the states
The growth of large monarchial states in the rest of Europe led to problems for Italy because
the kings of large states could raise large armies with which to attack states
As a result of Petrarch's finding and using classical Latin manuscripts, like poetry of Virgil and Homer
humanists ideas spread the writings of secular (not religious) poetry about love and life in the here and now, not just the afterlife
Using movable type for printing in Europe led to increased
rates of literacy in Europe
the human focused style of Renaissance artist resulted in art that
Used perspective to represent three dimensions
Art developed by Northern European artists during the Renaissance differed from art of Italian master artists because artists in the North
had smaller spaces, so they developed art that fit in books and on altarpieces
the humanists purpose for educating people was to
create well-rounded citizens
which of the following was true of Lutheranism
Lutheranism taught salvation through faith alone, not good works.
Martin Luther's belief in faith alone caused him to
disagree and break with the Catholic church
What caused Luther's call for the Catholic church to reform
the widespread selling of indulgences among other abuses, angered him
The division of Christianity in Germany into Catholic and Lutheran states was recognized by which of the following?
The Peace of Augsburg
Desiderus Erasmus stressed that inward religious feeling was more important that external forms of religion because it
showed people how to lead good lives
During his reign, Henry VIII
dissolved the Catholic monasteries
Anabaptists believed that
Church and state should be separate
In which of the following did John Cavil believe
an all-powerful god
Changing Protestant attitudes included
clergy being allowed to marry
Why did Ulrich Zwingli and Martin Luther form an alliance?
To defend themselves against Catholic authorities
Europeans began to explore ad expand in the 1500s because they wanted to
Gain riches, find adventure, and spread religion
Why did Portuguese and Spanish explorers sail in different directions to find a route to Asia?
They knew earth was round, so they would eventually reach the other side
The Portuguese were the first to explore other lands because they had
What advantage did better weaponry give Spanish conquistadors over the aztec and Inca empires
It allowed relatively fewer men to control large populations
What other countries settled in the Americas, challenging the financial control enjoyed by the Spanish and Portuguese?
Netherlands, France, and England
The Dutch traded luxury items from India as well as enslaved people from West Africa in an attempt to
become less dependent on Spain and Portugal and gain wealth
Which of the following explains why encomienda was a failure
Native Americans were often abused instead of being protected by settlers
The more that European countries expanded in the Americas, the more they increased the
slave trade in west Africa
One effect of the slave trade on African societies was
decreased population in some areas
African people were captured and forcibly sent to the Americas as part of the
triangular trade route
What is the correct list of social classes from colonial Latin America from highest to lowest?
Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattoes
How did Catholic missionaries aid European powers in controlling the lives of Native Americans
They brought Native Americans together in villages where they were taught trades and encouraged to grow crops
Spanish and Portuguese kings appointed ----- to govern their colonies in Latin America
Juana Ines de la Cruz
wrote poetry and prose and urged that women be educated
What were the most important Latin American natural resources for Spain?
gold and silver
James I of England struggled with Parliament because he believed in
the divine right of kings
Which of the following is evidence that religion was an important element in the English Civil War, the formation of a commonwealth, and the Restoration
King James II began to appoint Catholics to high public offices
What led up to the Glorious Revolution?
the desertion of many of James II's soldiers as well as the defection of his daughter
What did the English Bill of Rights accomplish?
It recognized Parliament's right to make laws.
The ideas of ------- can be found in the American Declaration Independence and the United States constitution
Peter the Great wanted to do which of the following
Westernize, or Europeanize, Russia
In the 17th century, the Hapsburg Empire
Remained a collection of territories
A contributing factor to Louis XIV's power was
creating a standing army
Which of th following was true of Louis XIV's rule
Louis XIV waged wars to achieve his goals
The huge size of the Globe theatre's audiences during the late 16th and early 17th centuries shows that
theatre was an important part of entertainment during that era
William Shakespeare's plays showed his keen understanding of
Because of the Stamp Act, what had to carry a stamp?
By approving the Declaration of Independence, a whole people had officially declared their right to
choose their government
The federal system is a form of government in which power is
shared between national and state governments
Why did France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic help the American colonists win their independence from Great Britain?
They where angry at the British, who had won earlier wars against them
Why did many European intellectuals admire the U.S. Revolution and its Constitution and Bill of Rights?
the colonies ideas came from the ideals of natural rights proposed in the Enlightenment
Fredrick II of Prussia promoted greater freedom of speech, the press, and religion however he did not improve life for
What is one new alliance that formed as war broke out around the globe?
France allied with Austria, which had previously been its rival
What finally happened to Silesia as a result of the Seven Years' War?
Prussia permanently kept it soft
How did the end of the Seven Years' War affect the future United States of America?
Britain won much of North America, which contained the colonies that later became the United States
Diderot's Encyclopedia was used to
attack religious superstition
According to Rousseau, general will represents what is best for the
Mary Wollstonecraft's ideas about the rights of women were based in
the idea that women have reason, like men
Education spread widely during the enlightenment because
reading material was aimed at the masses
Unlike baroque style, rococo art depicted...
the pursuit of pleasure, happiness, and love.
How did new technology such as the telescope and new theories such as Pascal's Law lay the foundation of the Scientific Revolution?
scientist used them to create more new inventions and theories
Which of the following made it possible for scientist to practice direct observation
the telescope and microscope
Many intellectuals of the 1500s and 1600s did not take Margaret Cavendish's work seriously because
she was a woman
Why did Descartes decide to set aside everything that he had learned and begin again
He doubted everything he had learned
Francis Bacon believed that scientist should
How did the conclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession and its Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle set the stage for the Seven Years' War?
Prussia refused to return Silesia to Austria
states ruled by hereditary leader
members of the middle class who lived in a city or town
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
soldiers who fight primarily for money
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