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endocrine glands secrete directly into ____________ to connect with targeted tissues

hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, islets of pancreas, ovaries, testes

what are the glands of the endocrine system (8)


this is part of the diencephalon - linked to the pituitary - regulates body temp, sexual behaviour, appetite, fluid balance, arousal, emotions


this gland is connected to the hypothalamus - it is the "master gland" - produces 6 hormones and stores 2 of them

gh, tsh, acth, prolactin, fsh, lh

what hormones does the pituitary gland produce

adh, oxytocin

what hormones does the pituitary store

thyroid, reproductive organs, adrenal cortex

wha does the pituitary target


this is usually associated with gh release - responsible for gigantism and acromegaly


this is an increased bone thickness and soft tissue hypertrophy due to hyperpituitarism


this is exagerated growth of long bones prior to adulthood due to hyperpituitarism

gh secretion

treatment for hyperpituitarism is surgery or drug therapy to reduce ____ ____________


this causes short stature, delayed growth, delayed puberty - decreased or absent release of GH from pituitary gland - dwarfism tends to be more of a genetic link than pituitary link


this gland is located below the larynx, anterior to the trachea - requires iodine to produce the hormones - regulates metabolism


this gland is able to store hormones for up to 30 days - targets all body systems - regulates metabolism - disorders common in females and closely related to pituitary and hypothalamus


with this the thyroid secretes too much thyroid hormone - increases body's overall metabolism

graves disease

with this autoantibodies circulate and stimulate hyper excretion of thyroid hormones - increases the body's sympathetic nervous system reaction - therefore increase metabolism and depletes the body's needed absorbed nutrition

a-fib, chf, cad, exopthalmos

with graves disease the pt will present with mild goiter, nervousness, mood swings, tremor, heat intolerance, weight loss with increased appetite, diaphoresis, diarrhea, heart palpations, muscle weakness, flushed skin, rapid pulse, polyuria, amenorrhea - potential detrimental effects are

radioactive iodine, surgery, anti thyroid drugs

what are the treatments for graves disease


this is a deficiency of thyroid hormone that results in decreased overall metabolism - either from decreased thyroid size/ hormone synthesis or from decreased stimulation of the thyroid gland due to a pituitary/hypothalamic disorder

hypothyroidism, hormone replacement

what is the most common thyroid disorder? what is the treatment?

cad, fibromyalgia, inflammatory arthritis

pt with hypo thyroidism can present with fatique, sensitivity to cold, fluid retention, forgetfulness, depression, dry skin, slowed pulse, tenosynovitis, muscle weakness and trigger points, goiter - possible detrimental effects include (4)

hashimotos disease

this is most common form of hypothyroidism - chronic thyroiditis - women have more often than men - it is an autoimmune disease that destroys the function of and enlarges the thyroid gland


hashimotos disease is caused by the pituitary gland secreting too much ______ - treatment is hormone replacement to reduce the release of this hormone


these are four small glands located behind the thyroid - regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism - it is not related to the pituitary or hypothalamus - targets the bone, kidneys, and intestines


this is high levels of pth in blood - causes calcium to leave bone and deposit kidneys, tendons, etc... - causes hyper calcemia - causes arrhythmias with forceful cardiac contractions, coma, lethargy, skeletal muscle weakness, constipation, vomiting, kidney stones, osteoporosis, arthralgia, tendonitis, hypercalcuria - requires surgery, drugs less effective


what causes hypo calcemia - low levels of pth in blood - causes axiety, confusion, seizures, arrhythmias, fatigue, paresthesia, hyperreflexia, muscle spasms/tetany


these glands are located above kidneys - involved in hr & bp regulation, salt and potassium levels, metabolic functions (processing of carbs, proteins, fats)

addisons disease

this is due to primary adrenal insufficiency - a problem with the adrenal gland itself in that it doesn't release enough cortisol - idiopathic and autoimmune - used to be a complication after TB

addisons disease

the following are symptoms of what ? hypoglycemia, weakness, exhaustion, hypotension, weight loss from anorexia, vomiting, emotional changes, bronzing of skin

replinish fluids, electrolytes, glucose, cortisol, medication

what is the treatment for addisons disease

cushings disease

this is due to a secondary adrenal insufficiency - excess release of acth from the pituitary gland causes abnormal stimulation fo the adrenal gland - can happen after overdose of cortisols - symptoms include; htn, hyperglycemia, proximal muscle weakness, osteoporosis, protruding abdomen w stretch marks, poor wound healing, moon face

islets of langerhans

this performs both hormonal and digestive functions - located in right upper abdominal quadrant - responsible for glucose homeostasis, produces insulin - targets all major body systems

diabetes mellitus

this ia a chronic, systemic disorder that is triggered by hyperglycemia and incorrect metabolism fo fats, carbs, and proteins - caused by a defect in either the production or processing of insulin


this is when excess glucose is not absorbed by kidneys ,therefore excreted in urine

heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, blood vessels

what parts of the body are commonly affected by diabetes mellitus

insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (iddm)

type 1 diabetes is also know as


with type 1 diabetes _________ production and secretion is affected


_____________ produces insulin in the islet of langerhans


insulin is a hormone that transports glucose to the cell to be used for energy and storage of ____________ - also stimulates protein synthesis and fat storage

peripheral neuropathy, loss of sight, ulcers, disorders of feet, amputation

it is important for type 1 patients to check glucose levels frequently, take insulin regularly - what are some common complications of type 1 diabetes

frequent urination, thirst, insatiable, weight loss, blurred vision, weakness, fatigue, dizziness

what are the clinical presentations of type 1 diabetes

80, 120

normal glucose is between ___ and ____ mg/dl

diabetic ketoacidosis

this is severe insulin deficiency - usually from an interruption in regular insulin administration schedule - treat as a medical emergency - present with high glucose (>300), dehydration, fruity acid breath, weak pulse, deep/rapid breathing, mild nausea, can lead to diabetic coma - can be a quick or gradual onset

non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2)

what does NIDDM stand for

type 2

this is adult onset - insulin is produced in pancreas but not effectively utilized by the body - commonly affects patients with obesity - at least 80% of all patients are obese and sedentary

type 1 diabetes

what patients would the following apply to - exercise causes blood glucose to drop - do not exercise your patient before eating or just after an injection

insulin injections, diet, regular excercise

what are the treatments for type 1 diabetes

headache, weakness, irritability, loss of coordination, psychosis, shaking, tachycardia

what are the indications of a hypoglycemic reaction - the treatment would be to give high carb food such as orange juice, hard candy, honey


type 2 diabetes can occur in obese children - insulin receptors are ineffective, therefore insulin does not accurately bring down ___________ levels and help with metabolism


chronic diabetes condition will increase


diabetes increases risk of ________ between 1.5 to 4 times that of a non-diabetic individual


after 20 years with diabetes, almost all type 1 and >60% of all type 2 patients will develop diabetic _____________

esrd (end stage renal disease)

diabetes is leading cause of _____________ - requires dialysis or transplant

testosterone, progesterone, estrogen

the reproductive glands release what (3) - they affect growth and sexual maturity

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