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carbohydrate synthesis

golgi apparatus is major site of ____

pectin and hemicellulose

synthesis of ____ of plant cell wall


synthesis of _____ of the extracellular matrix in animals cells

sorting and dispatching

__station for products of the ER


attaches ____ side chains to proteins and lipids from ER for targeting into the transport vesicles destined for specific destinations


proteins leave ER in ___ - coated transport vesicles

ER exit sites

COPII-coated vesicles bud from specialized regions of the ER called __

exit signals

Proteins that enter vesicles that leave the ER is a selective process mediated by ____

ER resident proteins

some _____ "leak" out of the ER and go to the golgi

secretory proteins

___ that are made in high concentrations may leave the ER without exit signals

ER to golgi

retention of incompletely assembled antibody molecules in the ER


The chaperone protein ___ binds to incompletely assembled antibodies

chaperone proteins

___ cover up exit signals on the incomplete molecules

homotypic membrane fusion

fusion of membranes from same compartment

step 1 homotypic membrane fusion

NSF pries apart identical pairs of v-SNARES and t-SNARES in both membranes

step 2 homotypic membrane fusion

matching v-SNARES and t-SNARES from adjacent identical membranes interact

step 3 homotypic membrane fusion

membranes from both vesicles fuse to form vesicular tubular cluster

homotypic membrane fusion

vesicular tubular clusters

____ can release COPI-coated vesicles which return resident proteins to the ER

ER retrieval signals

__ from escaped resident ER proteins binds to COPI coats for return to the ER

vesicular tubular clusters

KDEL sequence

__ signals a soluble ER resident protein

KDEL receptor

__mediates the ER resident protein to become vesiculated and COPI coated

Retrieval pathway to the ER uses sorting signals


entry face, is closest to the ER associated with cis golgi network

trans face

exit face, is closest to plasma membrane associate with trans golgi network

golgi apparatus

modifications to oligosaccharide

1. Man = Mannose 2. GlcNAc= N-acetylglucosamine 3. Gal=galactose 4. NANA=N-acetylneuraminic acid

oligosaccharide processing in golgi

modified oligo's

vesicular transport model

vesicular transport model

golgi apparatus is a static structure while the molecule in transit move through the cisternae sequentially via transport vesicles

cisternal maturation model

cisternal maturation model

golgi is a dynamic structure in which the cisternae move and mature

cis golgi network

phosphorylation of oligosaccharides on lysomal proteins

cis cisternae

removal of Mannose

medial cisternae

removal of mannose and addition of GlcNAc

trans cisternae

addition of Gal and addition of NANA

trans golgi network

sulfation of tyrosine and carbohydrates

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