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Arts and Humanities
Communicating Effectively Exam I Review
Terms in this set (78)
What are the three components of communication?
1. Competent: aligned with norms
2. Efficient: getting the point of a message across
3. Process: understanding the multiple parts a message needs to go through to be understood and reached
words, sounds, actions, and gestures that people express to one another when they interact
(ex: wave, smile)
A thing or object that represents or stands for something (ex: McDonald's arches)
Verbal symbols that have a universal meaning when translated (language gives words meaning)
Frame of Reference
The background knowledge and environment in which a message is given that shape our encounters
Modes in which we communicate (ex: text, face-to-face)
Anything about the environment that might disrupt the flow of communication (ex: noise level)
Causes speaker or listener to lack concentration; includes personal concerns, physical ailments, stress, or conflict.
The receiver's response to a message
Words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.
Examines how communication behaviors work (or don't work) to accomplish goals.
The three aspects of the functional perspective of communication
1. Affiliation (establishes connections)
2. Interdependence (shows the affect we have on others)
3. Shared Control (having the ability to control others; walking towards them and moving direction)
Ensures people are on the same page when communicating
Communication used to provide an organized description of an event or object; influenced by our past experiences and is pieced together by what we already know
Getting people to do or say something; intentionally or unintentionally
Communicating common traits and interests
What are common misconceptions of communication?
1. It's only a verbal process
2. Telling is the same as communication
3. Competency is the same as communication
4. It's an innate human ability
5. Communication can be broken down
6. Communication solves all problems
What are the five parts of the Shannon Weaver Mathematical Model?
1. Information source
Speaker sends a message to a listener who receives the message
Speaker sends a message to the listener; the listener sends delayed feedback
Simultaneous sending and receiving of messages
What are elements of a good speech?
Believing in the message you are sending
The fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another or others
A method to reduce apprehension by finding ways to relax prior to presenting
A method of reducing communication apprehension by rethinking and rationalizing "worst case senario" thoughts
A speech given with no preperation
A speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
A speech that is learned and delivered by rote without a written text.
A speech delivered with detailed notes but not given with the notes
The analysis of internal and external factors that can affect a presentation (ex: room type, setting)
Learning about the diverse characteristics of the people who make up the audience.
The "why" of a speech
The "what" of a speech
The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak; determined by appearance, clothes, posture, etc.
The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech; can change how the speaker was initially credited (ex: foul language, confidence, humor)
The long-term credibility of a speaker; indicates how impactful a speech was.
What are the three purposes of informative speeches?
1. To describe
2. To explain
3. To instruct
A statement that defines the purpose and goal of your speech.
The Presenter's Triangle
A presenter's moving tactic that involved starting in the back, moving to the side, and then moving forward
Theory of Immediacy
The idea that whoever is standing at the front of the room assumes authority
The Purpose of Demonstration Speeches
To tell a group how to do something
Communication occurring through how we sound
The tool that we use to produce speech.
Air and Thoracic Diaphragm
The area in which air should derive from.
Folds of membranous tissue that project inward from the sides of the larynx to form a slit across the glottis in the throat, and whose edges vibrate in the airstream to produce the voice.
Can be affected by liquids such as caffeine, tea, honey, etc.
Lips, teeth, tip of the tongue
Distinguishable marks of pronunciation that can be regional
The perceiving of sound
The constructed meaning from verbal and non-verbal messages
What is the three-step process to listening?
2. Constructing meaning
What are three reasons to listening?
1. To learn and comprehend
2. To evaluate and critique
3. To emphasize and understand
External aspects of the environment that disrupt a message (ex: noise, room size)
Mental/emotional disturbances that disrupt the receiving of a message
When a message has too much information within it
When a message is too complex to understand
The emotional tone of a relationship between two or more individuals
Arise from engaging in verbal battles and using inflammatory language, or because of individual and cultural differences between the speaker and listener
What are the steps with listening with patience?
Focusing on the "who" of a person and their emotions
A style of listening in which the listener focuses on immediately getting to the meaning of a message and determining what response is required
A listening style that reflects interest in detailed and complex information.
A style of listening in which listeners are concerned with managing, conserving, and protecting their time.
A type of online listening which involves interaction between two or more people
Scanning and skimming tweets and online commentary with little focus, attention, or response.
Giving the responsibility of tracking and responding to tweets to a third party.
All behaviors, attributes, and movements of humans other than verbal communication
Non-verbal communication represents ___% of communication.
What are the five parts of non-verbal communication?
1. Deliberate gestures
2. Facial Expressions
3. Body Language
4. Vocal Utterances
5. Visual Messages
What are the three functions of non-verbal communication?
1. Substitution: replaces verbal message
2. Repetition: emphasizing a word
3. Accent: adding excitement to some message
What facial expressions are universal?
Sadness, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, happiness
Communication includes only those messages that the source intends to send
Anything a receiver interprets as a message is communication, regardless of source intent or awareness.
Communication which the message is the main mode of communication
18 inches to 4 feet
12 feet or more
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