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PSYCHOLOGY 105 EXAM 2
Terms in this set (80)
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and night vision
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. They detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain
a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm
stimulus that resets the circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
primary auditory cortex
the region of the superior temporal lobe whose primary input is from the auditory system
the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
good figure, similarity, proximity, closure, continuation, symmetry
feature detection theory
certain neurons fire for individual and specific features of a visual stimulus such as shape, color, line, movements, etc.
Different three dimensional shapes that combine to form three dimensional patterns
a theory of pattern recognition stating that an object is recognized as a function of its overlap with various pattern templates stored in the brain
Deciding if an item is a member of a category by comparing it with the most typical item(s) of the category.
pinna and auditory canal
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
cochlea->superior olive->inferior colliculus->MGN->auditory cortex
The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner
three semicircular canals that provide the sense of balance, located in the inner ear and connected to the brain by a nerve
Where is the vestibular system located?
if the middle ear is infected then balance is effected
why does an ear infection make one dizzy?
5 stages of sleep
Beta, alpha, theta, delta, REM
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
rewards a response only after a specified number of responses
rewards a response after an unpredictable number of responses
describes the schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker receives a paycheck every Friday
rewards a response at unpredictable time intervals
law of effect
behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
add a desirable/rewarding stimulus
stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. (any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response)
an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.
A false belief task
Sally has a basket, Anne has a ball. Sally puts a red ball inside the basket. Then, Sally leaves the room
Anne saw Sally put ball in the red box. AS SALLY LEAVES ROOM, Anne takes ball out of the basket and places it into box
you ask a child after telling them this scenario: when Sally comes back, where is she going to look for the ball?
Children WITHOUT THEORY OF MIND will think that Sally will look in box bc that's where ball is
Children can't really be successful at this task until about 4. Children under 4 are unable to consider the situations of others
both lead to learning, but classically conditioning is pairing 2 stimuli & operant is behavior and response
difference between classical and operant conditioning
Early behaviorist; famous for the "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning
Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats
A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.
positive punishment = adding aversive consequence after bad behavior to make it less likely .
positive reinforcement = adding a motivating stimulus to person after desired behavior is shown
positive punishment v positive reinforcement
when a reinforcing stimulus is removed after bad behavior is exhibited to happen less often in future
when certain stimulus is removed after behavior is shown to increase the behavior
difference between negative punishment and reinforcement
who refers to consciousness as a stream?
Backward (Trace) Conditioning
the conditioned stimulus comes after the unconditioned stimulus
Forward (trace) conditioning
conditioned stimulus comes first, ends before start of unconditioned stimulus (response is sometimes weak)
Where are rods and cones located?
back of the retina
Where is the fovea located?
center of retina
What neurotransmitter does stimulants effect?
What is reuptake?
the absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted.
How do stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine affect reuptake of neurotransmitters in the synapse?
block reuptake and increase dopamine release
What. neurotransmitter does LSD act on?
describing one kind of sensation in terms of another
What hormone relates to sleep? How does it relate to light?
melatonin is released in darkness
What part of the thalamus does visual information pass through before the primary visual cortex?
lateral geniculate nucleus
lateral geniculate nucleus
a place in the thalamus that receives impulses from the optic nerve
What part of the thalamus does auditory information pass through before. the primary auditory cortex?
medial geniculate body
medial geniculate body
auditory relay station
What is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter?
What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter?
alcohol effects on prefrontal cortex
function, balance, posture, decision making, personality
What frequency pattern EEG does the frontal lobe show when an individual is fully awake?
beta - fully awake
subconscious - deeply relaxed, mediation, light hypnosis
superconscious - light sleep, drowsy, tranquil
dream state - deeply unconscious
cocktail party effect
ability to attend to only one voice among many
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Is the cocktail party affect top-down or bottom-up processing?
a decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation
located on the same side of the body
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
auditory reflex center
separates frontal and parietal lobes
What lobe is the primary auditory cortex located in?
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