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Arts and Humanities
Trends: Ch 4 Quiz
Terms in this set (38)
Difference between traditional and progressive education from 1870-1920
Beginning of mental, social education and the beginning of high school.
Percentage of students enrolled in secondary education between 1889-1890
What happened between 1919-1920 in public school education?
32% percent of school aged children were enrolled in public school.
Changes between 1870 and 1920 in urbanization
The number of cities with over half a million people grew from 2 to 12
Who were the new immigrants from 1870-1920
South and Eastern Europeans
Why did congress pass Chinese exclusion act of 1882
Pressure from west coast residents and to exclude people from targeted countries.
How did Charles Darwin theory of evolution effect pseudoscientific racism views of immigrants
People tried to create scientific arguments that they were more evolved than others.
In what fields did new immigrants find jobs in industry?
Nearly all fields but especially in mines, steel mills, factories, and slaughterhouses.
What happened to labor between 1870-1920?
A sharp decline from over half of the people working in farming to slightly over a quarter of people.
Name some major new inventions that appeared in the United States 1870-1920.
Typewriters, telephones, phonographs, lightbulbs, aluminum, airplanes, wireless radio
Who was Fredrick Winslow Taylor?
He was an engineer who applied principles of engineering to the management of workers. He broke skilled jobs into unskilled parts
Why did workers resist Taylorization
It lead to less need of skilled labor
Why did women enter the workforce between 1870-1900? What percentage of women worked outside the home by 1900? Why were women attracted to office positions?
The home became less about production and more about consumption. 90% of women worked outside the home and many worked in offices because they did not require much training and were easy to leave and re-enter.
What were the workers resisting when forming unions?
They opposed the organization of industry and low wages.
Why did the industrial owners have the upper hand when unions held strikes?
They had control of government militias and news outlets
The populists were farmers that lived primarily in the rural midwestern states. What were they opposed to?
The effect that industrialism capitalism had on the cost of farm production
Government control over the means of production
Why did big business leaders want government regulation?
"Free market" system lead to worker revolts, severe economic depressions. It made sense of big business to trust government officials.
What happened in schools as a result of centralization of power at the state level?
Introduced compulsory (mandatory) schooling legislation
With the centralization of power at the city level, what happened to the "ward boss" system of politics?
It was eliminated for a system where alderman that were backed by business and professional classes campaigned.
How did centralization of power at the city level effect urban schools?
It allowed for easier control of things like budget and curriculum. However, local ethnic communities no longer played a role in decision making about their children's schools.
What is "positive freedom"
Conditions for freedom require positive action, not non-intervention government that allows corporations to prosper at expense of majority.
Differences between "faculty psychology" and "new psychology"
New psychology used several different approaches rather than single approach.
Edward L. Thorndike ideas concerning new psychology.
He influenced a change toward developing the mind rather than memorizing specific information of skills.
1880's problems by critics of schools
1. High illiteracy among urban youth
2. High dropout rates
3. Failure to interest and motivate students
4. Irrelevance of traditional curriculum
5. Waste and inefficiency in school management practices
4 primary ideas in progressive education
1. Traditional curriculum replaced with varied curriculum based on needs and interests.
2. Activity focused learning.
3. School aims, content, processes should reflect social conditions.
4. A primary aim of school is to help solve social problems
What did Dewey believe about children?
Children were curious and social by nature
What did Dewey mean by education through vocation?
Educate child so they can choose their path and learn their interests.
What did Elliot believe the function of schools should be?
He was supportive of business and believed that school should teach prospective workers to be accommodating and cooperative to management.
Eliot believed children should be lead into one of the four classes of life work. What were the four classes?
1. Small managing or leading class
2. Commercial class devoted to buying and selling
3. Skilled artisans
4. Rough workers
Shifting from liberal education to the workforce model of education, by 1922, what changes did we see in academic subjects taught in high schools?
Traditional classes meant strictly for education were replaced with more practical classes find work.
What difference in coursework was there between men and women?
Coursework was geared towards traditional gender roles. (Industrial art for men and bookkeeping for women)
How did the use of mass IQ testing, which was looked at as scientific and exact effect placement for students in school?
It placed students on different tracks for different potential fields.
1. Schools should allow for free thought
2. No heavy structure in school.
3. Studies based on student interest
1. School should emphasize employable skills
2. Supported business
1. IQ testing
2. Student on different tracks.
3. New psychology (learning by doing)
4. Vocational education
What impact did the massive demographic, economic, and ideological changes occurring at the turn of the twentieth centuries have on the development of progressive education
Critically analyze the differences between John Dewey's idea of education through the vocation and Elliot's idea of education for the vocation
Elliot wished education prepared for worker obedience and students should learn to enter the workforce. Dewey believed that students should learn to be educated and decide which field they would like to enter and continue learning.
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