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33 terms

Changes over time (Biology)

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evolution
the gradual change in the characteristics of a species over time
species
a group of organisms whose members look alike and successfully reproduce among themselves
darwin
person considered to be the founder of modern evolutionary theory
on the origin of species
what established evolution by a common descent as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature
natural selection
a mechanism for changes in populations that occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce and pass on traits to the next generation
artificial selection
the breeding of certain traits over others
genetic drift
random fluctuations in the frequency of appearance of a gene in a small isolated population, presumably owing to chance rather than natural selection
gene flow
transfer of genes from one population of the same species, as by migration or the dispersal of seeds and pollen
mutation
a change in a dna sequence usually occurring because of errors in replication or repair
recombination
AKA crossing over; a process in which pairs of chromosomes swap DNA with one another.
recombination
what happens during gamete formation
biogeography
the study of how species are distributed spatially across the landscape
a common ancestor
what do species have to share in order for the distribution patterns across the globe to make sense
that modern species should be found close to where their ancestors were, regardless of environmental conditions
what does the evolutionary theory predict
plants and animals
islands should contain what that are closely related to their mainland
the fact that islands contain plants and animals that are closely related to the species on the nearest mainland
what indicates that early ancestors of species migrated, and as the environments changed, the organisms adapted to their unique island over time
the idea of continental drift
what idea lends support to biogeography as evidence for evolution
similar dna, rna, and proteins
what do all living things contain
whether or not the organisms are closely related
what can scientists determine by comparing dna sequences
the relationship between closely related species
what relationship can be used to contruct evolutionary pathways
the fewer turns you take, the more closely related organisms are
what is true of the philogenic tree/platogram
fossils
provide evidence for evolution; remains of once living things that are preserved in earth's rocks
bacteria
where are the oldest fossils found
homologous structures
have different FUNCTION but the same STRUCTURE; these similarities indicate that the organisms probably had a common evolutionary origin (limbs)
analogous structures
have body parts that are similar in FUNCTION but different in STRUCTURE. these indicate that the organisms probably had different yet related ancestors (wings)
mimicry and camouflage
what are the two changes in the structure of body parts
mimicry
enables an organism to COPY the appearance of another species
camoflage
a structural adaptation that enables an organism to BLEND in with its surroundings
they show structural changes over time
how do functionless structures such as the appendix and the eyes of cavefish support the theory of evolution
physiological changes
changes in an organism's metabolic processes
they are more physiologically resistant
how do organisms that have been exposed to antibiotic and pesticides survive in their environments
embryology
the study of the development of embryos
a common ancestor
studies of certain embryos indication evolution from what