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What are the testes?

-male gonads

What are the functions of the testes?

-to produce sperm
-to produce testosterone, the male sex hormone

What is each testis surrounded by?

-tunica albuginea

What is the tunica albuginea covered by?

-a shiny, white CT capsule

What covers the tunica albuginea?

-the tunica vaginalis

What are the two layers of the tunica vaginalis?

-the visceral tunica vaginalis and the parietal tunica vaginalis?

Where do the sperm travel to on their way to the pelvic cavity? (Describe the route)

-released into the "pipes" of the testes
-ductus deferens/vas deferens
-ductus deferens passes through the spermatic cord
-ductus deferens enters the pelvic cavity through the inguinal canal


-worm-shaped structure sitting on top of and along the length of each testis

Spermatic cord

-suspends the testes inside two fibromuscular sacs (scrotum)

What are the two fibromuscular sacs that make up the scrotum called?

-dartos muscle
-cremaster muscle

What is the role of the dartos muscle and the cremaster muscle?

-temperature regulation

What is the dartos muscle made from?

-smooth muscle

Where is the dartos muscle found?

-woven into the scrotum

What is the cremaster muscle made from?

-skeletal muscle

Where is the cremaster muscle found?

-surrounding each testicle

Where does the ductus deferens run once it enters the pelvic cavity?

-enters the pelvic cavity through the inguinal canal
-wraps around the roof and posterior of the urinary bladder
-enlarges posteriorly (ampulla)
-becomes the ejaculatory duct
-becomes the urethra
-urethra travels inside the penis

What are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system?

-two seminal vesicles
-prostate (chestnut-shaped)
-bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands (pea-shaped and sized)

What is the role of the accessory glands?

-to add aqueous secretions ("seminal fluid") to the sperm

What is the combination of sperm and seminal fluid referred to as?


What is the posterior enlargement of the vas deferens called?


What are the two main components of the penis?

-body (shaft)
-glans (head)

What is the opening on the tip of the glans called?

-external urethral orifice

What is the role of the external urethral orifice?

-final point of exit for the urine or semen from the male body

What is the broad lip-shaped base of the glans called?

-the corona

What is the glans typically protected by?

-retractable skin covering

What is the prepuce secured ventrally by?

-short piece of skin

How is the penile body suspended from the abdominal wall?

-via the suspensory ligament

In its flaccid state, which aspect of the penis contains the dorsal blood vessels and nerves?

-the penis' anterior aspect

What three sets of specialized tissues does the penis contain?

-corpus spongiosum (on ventral aspect)
-corpus spongiosum is flanked dorsally by the paired corpora cavernosa (singular = corpus cavernosum)

What temperature does sperm production require?

-35 degrees celsius

What is core body temperature?

-37 degrees celsius

What is the gubernaculum?

-a "string" at the body of the testes

What is the gubernaculum facilitate/assist?

-aids in the descent of the male testes
-used to pull testes down into the scrotum

What is the pampiniform plexus?

-a network of veins in the spermatic cord

What important role does the pampiniform plexus perform?

-cools blood traveling to the testes within the testicular artery

What method is used to transfer heat from the testicular artery to the panpiniform plexus?

-countercurrent convection

What is the fluid released by the seminal vesicles called? What is it composed of?

-seminal fluid
-"high fructos corn syrup"--water and sugar

What happens to the prostate as men age?

-the prostate enlarges

What is this process called?

-benign prostatic hypertrophy

What do the cowpers/bulbourethral glands secrete?

-fluid to make the urine in the urethra less acidic

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