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40 terms

Male reproductive organs

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What are the testes?
-male gonads
What are the functions of the testes?
-to produce sperm
-to produce testosterone, the male sex hormone
What is each testis surrounded by?
-tunica albuginea
What is the tunica albuginea covered by?
-a shiny, white CT capsule
What covers the tunica albuginea?
-the tunica vaginalis
What are the two layers of the tunica vaginalis?
-the visceral tunica vaginalis and the parietal tunica vaginalis?
Where do the sperm travel to on their way to the pelvic cavity? (Describe the route)
-released into the "pipes" of the testes
-epididymis
-ductus deferens/vas deferens
-ductus deferens passes through the spermatic cord
-ductus deferens enters the pelvic cavity through the inguinal canal
Epididymus
-worm-shaped structure sitting on top of and along the length of each testis
Spermatic cord
-suspends the testes inside two fibromuscular sacs (scrotum)
What are the two fibromuscular sacs that make up the scrotum called?
-dartos muscle
-cremaster muscle
What is the role of the dartos muscle and the cremaster muscle?
-temperature regulation
What is the dartos muscle made from?
-smooth muscle
Where is the dartos muscle found?
-woven into the scrotum
What is the cremaster muscle made from?
-skeletal muscle
Where is the cremaster muscle found?
-surrounding each testicle
Where does the ductus deferens run once it enters the pelvic cavity?
-enters the pelvic cavity through the inguinal canal
-wraps around the roof and posterior of the urinary bladder
-enlarges posteriorly (ampulla)
-becomes the ejaculatory duct
-becomes the urethra
-urethra travels inside the penis
What are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system?
-two seminal vesicles
-prostate (chestnut-shaped)
-bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands (pea-shaped and sized)
What is the role of the accessory glands?
-to add aqueous secretions ("seminal fluid") to the sperm
What is the combination of sperm and seminal fluid referred to as?
-semen
What is the posterior enlargement of the vas deferens called?
-ampulla
What are the two main components of the penis?
-body (shaft)
-glans (head)
What is the opening on the tip of the glans called?
-external urethral orifice
What is the role of the external urethral orifice?
-final point of exit for the urine or semen from the male body
What is the broad lip-shaped base of the glans called?
-the corona
What is the glans typically protected by?
-prepuce
-"foreskin"
-retractable skin covering
What is the prepuce secured ventrally by?
-frenulum
-short piece of skin
How is the penile body suspended from the abdominal wall?
-via the suspensory ligament
In its flaccid state, which aspect of the penis contains the dorsal blood vessels and nerves?
-the penis' anterior aspect
What three sets of specialized tissues does the penis contain?
-corpus spongiosum (on ventral aspect)
-corpus spongiosum is flanked dorsally by the paired corpora cavernosa (singular = corpus cavernosum)
What temperature does sperm production require?
-35 degrees celsius
What is core body temperature?
-37 degrees celsius
What is the gubernaculum?
-a "string" at the body of the testes
What is the gubernaculum facilitate/assist?
-aids in the descent of the male testes
-used to pull testes down into the scrotum
What is the pampiniform plexus?
-a network of veins in the spermatic cord
What important role does the pampiniform plexus perform?
-cools blood traveling to the testes within the testicular artery
What method is used to transfer heat from the testicular artery to the panpiniform plexus?
-countercurrent convection
What is the fluid released by the seminal vesicles called? What is it composed of?
-seminal fluid
-"high fructos corn syrup"--water and sugar
What happens to the prostate as men age?
-the prostate enlarges
What is this process called?
-benign prostatic hypertrophy
What do the cowpers/bulbourethral glands secrete?
-fluid to make the urine in the urethra less acidic