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9th Grade Biology Chapter 12 DNA Quiz

9th Grade Biology Chapter 12 DNA Quiz
STUDY
PLAY
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
Frederick Griffith's major contribution
transformative factor in bacteria; some chemical compound in cells must be responsible for BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION
Oswald Avery/Hersey & Chase's major contribution
DNA is transformative factor
Rosalind Franklin's major contribution
x-ray picture of DNA
James Watson & Francis Crick's major contribution
double helix
Nucleotide
monomer of DNA
Three subunits that make up a neucleotide
phosphate, deoxyribose, nitrogen base
Sugar & Phosphate
make up the SIDES of the ladder
Base
makes up th rungs of the ladder
Chargaff's base paring rule
A = T
C = G
Explained by the double helix model
Hydrogen
bond that connects nitrogen bases
What is replication
copying of DNA
When does replication occur
S phase of interphase
Steps of replication
1) Helicase unwinds and unzips
2) DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides
The ENZYMES are Helicase and Polymerase
Semi-Conservative Model
the correct replication model, 1/2 of old strands and 1/2 of new strands
Three types of Replication Models
Conservative (old strands stay together)
Dispersive (mix of old strands and new strands)
Semi-Conservative (1/2 old strands & 1/2 new strands)
Template strand DNA TTC GAG
Complementary strand DNA AAG CTC
Transformation
process that can change a harmless bacterial strain into a disease-causing strain
Bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
Base Pairing
In DNA, the fit between thymine and adenine and the fit between cytosine and guanine (A=T, C=G)
Replication
process that copies a DNA molecule, DNA separates into two strands during this process
DNA Polymerase
Main enzyme in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA, proofreads each new DNA strand to make sure that each molecule is a copy of the original
Telomere
tip of a chromosome
The center of the DNA strand exhibits
Base Pairing
What did Hershey & Chase study?
they studied a bacteriophage that was composed of a DNA core and a protein coat
This can begin at many places on the DNA molecule
replication