Social isolation has what kind of effects?
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Terms in this set (45)
Tajfel: Findingspeople are motivated to establish and maintain their self-esteemSocial Categorization Theoryproposes that we use characteristics to categorize others into groups, and this shapes our attitudes and behavior toward othersSocial categorizing leads tootheringSociologists emphasized the role of...groupsPsychologists emphasized the role of...individualsLe BonFrench physician who wrote "Psychology of Crowds" in which he argued groups were instinctively irrationalDurkheimBelieved that those not affiliated with groups lose their identityCharles Cooleybelieved primary groups (face-face) are fundamental to social natureTriplett-studied whether or not we are influenced by others -studied children reeling fishing line alone or against partner -most were quicker; some were slower -social facilitation*Ringelmanndemonstrated that there was productivity loss in groups working on a additive tasksRingelmann studiedsocial loafinggroup-orientedassumes that each person is an element of a larger system and what a person does reflects the state of the larger systemGroup Mindyou are a fundamentally different person in a groupIndividual orientedsuccess attributed to own abilityKurt Lewin's Field Theorypersonality is dynamic and constantly changing; can be divided up into ever-changing "systems" that function in an integrated fashion under optimal conditions but are diffused when person is under anxiety or tensionKurt Lewins equation meaningbehavior is a function of the interactions between personal characteristics and the environmental factorsSherif Norm Formation Studyused the auto kinetic effect to understand the development of group normsSherif norm study take awaydecisions are internalizedLonelinessa feeling of deprivation about existing social relationsSocial lonelinessperson does not belong to any groups that provide members opportunities for interactionEmotional lonelinessperson desires but cannot establish a meaningful, intimate relationshipRelationship between ostracism and aggressionindividuals who have been rejected experience more aggressive feelingsIndividualismemphasis placed on individuals as independent entitiesIdentities of people in individualistic countries are formed throughpersonal characteristicsCollectivismemphasis placed on the unity of all peopleIdentities of people in collectivist countries are formed throughsocial relationshipsSocial identitythe part of the self-concept that is derived from ones membership in a groupsocial worthrelated to social acceptance, approval, social status, making them a desirable companionminimal group paradigmthe common finding that even when people are arbitrarily assigned to a group they tend to favor those who are placed in the same groupRobber's Cave Studychange in attitudes towards members of other groups - created strong in-group feelings and conflictsuperordinate goalsshared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperationoutgroup heterogeneityoutgroup members are perceived to be more similar to one another than we perceive our own groupsout-group homogeneity can be explained bylimited contact to memory processesrealistic conflict theorythe theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources (conflict creates the problem)contact hypothesisThe idea that stereotypes and prejudice toward a group will diminish as contact with the group increases.