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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY: Chapter 6
Cities & Urban Land Use
Terms in this set (105)
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
A city organised without over reliance on the surrounding rural areas and using renewable energy
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
the uncontrolled expansion of urban areas.
Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since World War II. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty.
Agglomerations of several cities, towns, and suburbs that have expanded so that they coalesce into a single, sprawling urban mass of more than 20 million people.
the shift of large segments of population away from the urban core and toward rural areas
the tendency of people or businesses and industry to locate outside the central city
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
areas of new development beyond the suburbs that are more rural but on the fringe of urbanized areas
Rapidly growing suburban cities
a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority.
A relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services
economic activity concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacture of goods in factories.
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
The primate city
a city that is the largest settlement in a country and has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
A model which holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
Christaller's Central Place Theory
Developed in the 1930s by Walter Christaller, this model explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers or market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a large number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Concentric Zone Model
This model was devised in the 1920s by Ernest Burgess to predict and explain the growth patterns of North American urban spaces. Its main principle is that cities can be viewed from above as a series of concentric rings; as the city grows and expands, new rings are added and old ones change character. Key elements of the model are the central business district and the peak land value intersection.
Focuses on residential patterns explaining where the wealthy in a city choose to live. He argued that the city grows outward from the center, so a low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the city's outer edge, creating zones which are shaped like pieces of a pie.
Multiple Nuclei Model
Developed in the 1950s by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman, this model explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces based on the assumption that growth occurred independently around several major foci (or focal nodes), many of which are far away from the central business district and only marginally connected to it.
Bid rent theory
a geographical economic theory to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the CBD increases
Density dependent factors
factor that limits a population more as population density increases
the regulation of population in which the death rate is independent of the population size
A measurement of housing units in a given area
The process by which population density in an urban centre is increased by building on waste land or underused land.
concerned with the design and regulation of urban spaces, such as cities and towns
ways in which people, places, and characteristics are organized on the Earth's surface
The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future.
the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited. Zoning is a technique of land-use planning as a tool of urban planning used by local governments in most developed countries.
Mixed land use
Using land for different reasons, multiple goals accomplished
the overall level of comfort, access, enjoyment, and connectivity of an area that facilitates walking
A movement in urban planning to promote mixed use commercial and residential development and pedestrian friendly, community orientated cities. New urbanism is a reaction to the sprawling, automobile centered cities of the mid twentieth century.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
De facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
urban communities where the planners have put into place smart growth initiatives to decrease the rate at which the city grows horizontally to avoid the adverse affects of sprawl
Smart growth policies
any policy that tries to prevent the demanding effects of suburban sprawl and urban fragmentation
the huge and complex data sets generated by today's sophisticated information generation, collection, storage, and analysis technologies
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
research based on observation that does not include numerical data (no graphs)
Census and survey data
A survey is a data collection activity involving a sample of the population. A census collects information about every member of the population.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Encouraging owners to sell their properties because minorities are moving into a neighborhood
when people in poorer communities are more likely to be subjected to negative environmental impacts to their health and well-being
the very poorest of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug-lords
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords.
Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants.
zoning regulations that create incentives or requirements for affordable housing development
abandoned polluted industrial sites in central cities, many of which are today being cleaned and redeveloped
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Government-owned housing rented to low-income individual, with rents set at 30 percent of the tenant's income.
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
A residential or commercial area situated within an urban area but outside the central city
a continuous urban complex in the northeastern US
a central city and its surrounding built-up suburbs
in the United Stares, an urban area with between 2,500-50,000 inhabitants
in the United States, an urban area with at least 50,000 inhabitants
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit known as a municipality.
Core based statistical area (CBSA)
In the United States, the combination of all metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas.
Combined Statistical Area (CSA)
In the United States, two or more contiguous core based statistical areas tied together by commuting patterns.
Primary Statistical Area (PSA)
In the United States, any CSA, any MSA not included in a CSA, or any μSA not included in a CSA.
Central Business District
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
CBD's Distinctive Features
- three-dimensional character, with more space used below and above ground level than elsewhere in the urban area
- land uses commonly found elsewhere in the urban area are rare in the CBD
Buildings or structures 15 meters or more in height.
SouthEast Asia Model
Model that features high-class residential zones that stem from the center, middle-class residential zones that occur in inner-city areas, and low-income squatter settlements that occur in the periphery. Also features middle-income housing in suburban areas. It is also important to note that the Southeast Asian City model does not explain why the areas were formed but rather points out trends and patterns.
Latin American City Model
This model shows that most cities have a central business district, one dominant elite residential sector, and a commercial spine. These areas are then surrounded by a series of concentric zones that decrease in residential quality farther from the CBD.
African City Model
Model that suggests that African cities have more than one CBD, which is a remanence of colonialism
Social Area Analysis
Thestudy of where people of varying living standards, ethnic background, and lifestyle live within an urban area
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
a residential area where housing has been built on land to which the occupants have no legal claim or has not been built to the city's standards for legal buildings
A formal association containing many individual groups or countries
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Rush Hour (peak hour)
The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
According to the geographer John R. Borchert, American cities have undergone five major epochs, or periods, of development shaped by the dominant forms of transportation and communication at the time. These include sail-wagon epoch (1790-1830), iron horse epoch (1830-1870), steel rail epoch (1870-1920), auto-air-amenity epoch (1920-1970), and satellite-electronic-jet propulsion and high-technology epoch (1970-present).
The Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830)
First stage of Borchert's Epochs where all sizable urban settlements were located on the Atlantic coast or navigable rivers. Urban settlements were small, compact centers based on walking and horse and wagons.
The Iron Horse Epoch (1830-1870)
Second stage of Borchert's Epochs where the invention of the steam-driven railroad allowed for the rapid expansion from urban settlements into surrounding regions. Steamboats increased the movement of goods and river cities emerged with significant growth.
The Steel Rail Epoch (1870-1920)
Third stage of Borchert's Epochs that coincides with the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION and explains the contemporary distribution of urban settlements as they emerged along the railroads. Industrial centers in the Northeast and Midwest continued to grow and became dependent on railroad transportation.
Auto-Air- Amenity Epoch (1920-1970)
Fourth stage of Borchert's Epochs where the railroads began to decline as well as coal-based energy and steam power (replaced with gasoline and diesel). Populations from urban areas began to disburse to suburban and rural locations with increased automotive ownership and highway construction. This leads to suburbanization
Air travel increased as rail travel declined.
Satellite-Electronic-Jet Propulsion Epoch (1970-?)
Fifth stage to Borchert's Epochs where the current era is characterized by the ability to communicate electronically, as well as to control transport systems electronically. This era is still continuing.
Motor Vehicle Pros
- Comfort, choice, flexibility
- Perceived cost
Motor Vehicle Cons
- Consumption of land
Public transportation set by fixed routes, fixed fares, and are available to the public. Ex. Buses, trains.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
- Inadequate job skills
- Culture of poverty
- Inadequate services
- Municipal finances
Most rely on property taxes.
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
The Community Reinvestment Act
Requires banks to demonstrate their commitment to local communities through low-income lending programs and to provide annual reports to the public.
upper-class ethnically diverse families
Upper-middle-class young singles and couples
Money and Brains
Wealthy older highly educated families
Upper-middle-class older families with children
Wealthy younger highly educated individuals
Widows and widowers living on fixed pensions
Yuppie apartment-dwelling singles and couples
Young urban professionals
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
The process of capturing waste CO2, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally underground.
Micropolitan Statistical Area
In the United States, an urban area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide
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