Reading Praxis 5203
Terms in this set (101)
Information from the words or sentences surrounding a word that helps to clarify the word's meaning.
Procedures for assisting students in learning at their level.
Writers make the final copy of their writing and share it with an audience.
Second stage of writing process, in which writers pour out ideas in a rough draft.
5th stage of reading process in which a reader uses what they've learned in another literacy experience, often by making a project.
Ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression. Fluency provides
a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
1st stage of the reading process in which readers activate background knowledge, set purposes, and make plans for reading.
1st stage of writing process, in which writers gather and organize ideas for writing.
The ability to use digital and multimodal technologies to communicate and learn effectively.
A sound: it is represented in print with slashes. (s/th/)
Figurative language in which things are represented as having human qualities.
Predictable relationships between phonemes and graphemes.
The relationship between a sound and the letter that represents it.
Literature Focus Unit
An instructional approach in which students meet in small groups and respond to a piece of literature.
The history and origin of words.
Informal Reading Inventory
An assessment in which a student reads a selected series of texts that gradually increase in difficulty. The teacher records errors and assesses comprehension to determine the levels of reading materials appropriate for the student. The IRI yields three reading levels. The independent level is the level at which a student can read without any assistance. Comprehension is 90 percent or greater and word recognition is 99 percent or greater. The instructional level is the level at which the student can read with some assistance. Comprehension is 75 percent or greater and word recognition is 95 percent or greater. The frustration level is the level at which reading is so difficult that the student can't read it even with help. Comprehension is 50 percent or less and word recognition is 90 percent or less.
Independent Reading Level
Reading material that a student can read independently.
5 words or more- too hard
3 words or more-perfect
All words- too easy
A technique in which words are deleted from a passage according to a word count formula or various other criteria. The passage is then presented to students, who insert words as they read to complete and construct meaning from the text.
Identifying words accurately and quickly.
Comparison using "like" or "as"
Students' awareness of their own thought and learning process.
A prefix or suffix, added to the root word to change the word's meaning.
The smallest part of a word. Sometimes a word, sometimes not
In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
A syllable or word that comes before a root word to change its meaning
Instructional Reading Level
Reading level at which a student recognizes and comprehends words well enough to avoid frustration, but still requires some assistance or guidance from teacher. 90-95% accuracy and 80% comprehension
A method of estimating the difficulty level of a text.
a morpheme that is a complete word on its own: dog, lid, car
Method for evaluating the difficulty of written material based on vocabulary, sentence length and complexity, and other factors.
The art or study of correct spelling according to established usage. (The spelling system)
The concept that letters represent sounds. One of the earliest skills young readers must master in the emergent literacy stage.
A morpheme that must be "bound" with another morpheme to form a word. Ex: un, ish, es, ed, pre
Listening Capacity Level
The highest level of graded passage that can be comprehended well when read aloud to the student.
An extreme exaggeration
suffixes that express plurality or possession when added to a noun (e.g. girls, girl's), tense when added to a verb (e.g. walked, walking), or comparison when added to an adjective (e.g. happier, happiest).
5 Stages of Reading Process
1. Pre-Read (Activate background knowledge, set purpose, make plans for reading)
2. Reading (Read text for first time)
4. Exploring (re-read text, study vocabulary, learn strategy and skill
5. Applying (use what is learned from another literary experience)
Stages of Writing Process
1. Pre-writing (gather and organize ideas)
2. Drafting (write down ideas)
3. Revising ( content is added, removed, or improved in semantically significant ways)
4. Editing (proofread, correct)
5. Publishing (Make final copy, share it with audience)
Correcting grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
Basic reading program
A collection of student textbook, workbooks, teacher's manuals and other materials and resources for reading instruction.
a method of extimating the difficulty level of a text
reading to carry away information; the focus is on the information in the text and illustration and not focused on the experience of reading for entertainment
Using word-identification strategies to pronounce and attach meaning to an unfamiliar word.
Decoding is the ability to apply your knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written words.
Determining specific problems readers and having with a text.
A strategy for choosing "just right" books. Not too hard, not too easy.
A book discussion in which students deepen their comprehension and reflect on their feelings during the responding step of the reading process
A strategy for categorizing and analyzing a student's oral reading errors.
Technique for recording & analyzing students' oral reading errors in order to gain an insight into the reading process they employ
Activities and materials related to real-world reading and writing.
Reading material that is too difficult for a student to read successfully.
The ability to read and write.
Intense, individualized instruction for struggling readers to solve reading problems and accelerate their growth.
A technique a writer uses to create pictures in the reader's mind and to appeal to the senses of touch, taste, smell, or hearing.
Use of figurative language to create an impression.
Two words that sound alike and are spelled alike but have different meanings.
Also called homophones.
Context Area Literacy
Reading and writing in social studies, science, and other areas of the curriculum.
A letter or combination of letters in the written language which represent a meaningful sound (phoneme) in the spoken language. Ex. "thin" has 4 graphemes t-h-i-n , but has 3 phonemes "th-i-n . "th" is a digraph, 2 letters making up the sound.
A teaching technique in which students read a carefully chosen book at their reading level while the teacher teaches, supports, and evaluates as necessary.
A category or type of literature (or of art, music, etc.) characterized by a particular form, style, or content.
Concepts About Print (CAP):
Assesses the literacy knowledge of kindergarten children and early first graders. Skills assessed: book handling skills, directionality, word-by-word matching, locating words in print, etc. CAP lets teachers know what children understand about print.
Assessment that includes tools designed to, before instruction,
determine and diagnose student's strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills. This allows the teacher to differentiate curriculum and instruction to meet each student's needs.
Levels of difficulty, from the easy books that an emergent reader might begin with ... to the longer, complex books that advanced readers would need.
Refers to the consistency of the outcomes; how dependable a test is. It is also a prerequisite of validity.
Assessment at the beginning of school year to determine a student's reading level.
An individually administered survey designed to help a teacher determine a student's spelling (orthographic) instructional needs.
The extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure.
The concept that letters and letter combinations represent individual
phonemes in written words.
Auditory discrimination skills
The ability to detect differences in sounds; may be gross ability,
such as detecting the differences between the noises made by a cat and dog, or fine ability, such as detecting the differences made by the sounds of letters m and n.
Awareness of print
Understand that print has different functions depending on the context in which it appears understanding that print is organized in a particular way - for example,
knowing that print is read from left to right and top to bottom. It is knowing that words consist of letters and that spaces appear between words. Print awareness is a child's earliest
introduction to literacy.
Two or more consecutive consonants which retain their individual sounds (e.g., /bl/ in
block; /str/in string).
Concept of print
The idea that print must be ordered and arranged systematically to communicate meaning effectively.
Two consecutive consonants that represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., /ch/, /sh/).
A vowel produced by the tongue shifting positions during articulation; a vowel that
feels as if it has two parts, especially the vowels spelled ow, oy, ou, and oi.
The teacher's language is concise, specific, and related to the objective. The actions of the teacher are clear, unambiguous, direct, and visible. Systematic instruction
that involves teacher modeling and explanation (I Do), guided practice and application (We Do),
and independent practice (You Do).
A letter or letter combination that spells a phoneme; can be one, two, three, or four letters in English (e.g., e, ei, igh, eigh).
Not directly stated in the text, but may be inferred from the text; reading between the lines.
The smallest meaningful unit of language. A morpheme can be one syllable (book) or more than one syllable (seventeen). It can be a whole word or a part of a word such as a prefix or suffix. For example, the word ungrateful contains three morphemes: un, grate,
Onset and rime
In a syllable, the onset is the initial consonant or consonants, and the rime is the vowel and any consonants that follow (e.g., the word sat, the onset is "s" and the rime is
The smallest unit of sound within our language system. A phoneme combines with other phonemes to make words. A sound unit. The c in cat and the m in mat are phonemes.
The ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual
phonemes in words. It is the ability to understand that sounds in spoken language work together to make words. This term refers to the highest level of phonological awareness
Phonetically Irregular Words
Words that stray from the most common pronunciation; words
that do not follow common phonic patterns (e.g., were, was, laugh, been).
A system of teaching reading and spelling that focuses on sound/symbol relationships,
or the direct predictable relationship between a phoneme and letter or letters that
represent that phoneme.
Phonological awareness covers a range of understandings related to the sounds of words and word parts, including identifying and manipulating larger parts of
spoken language such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes. It also includes phonemic awareness as well as other aspects of spoken language such as rhyming and syllabication.
Auditory processing skill. It relates to words, but occurs in the
absence of print. It involves detecting and discriminating differences in phonemes or speech sounds under conditions of little or no distraction or distortion.
The study of the development and change of the meanings of speech forms. Semantics is the study of how meaning is derived from symbols, signs, text and other
meaning beating forms.
Structural analysis is where you will break words down into their base components, root, prefix, and suffix, to try to better understand them.
The word order pattern in sentences, phrases, etc.
Automaticity is a general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious
awareness. These skills become automatic after extended periods of training.
Visual framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word or concept. Framework contains category, properties, and examples of word
a teaching strategy in which teacher and students read aloud from the same text. The teacher expressively reads a few words, a line, or a sentence, and then the student
immediately reads the same passage in the same way the teacher did.
Reading with expression, proper intonation, and phrasing.
Portrays the relations that compose a concept; a strategy for graphically representing concepts
Structural Analysis Skills
A procedure for teaching students to read words formed with
prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful word parts
After Reading Strategies
Strategies that require the reader to actively transform key
information in text that has been read (e.g., summarize text, retell the story, confirm predictions, evaluate, connect and compare across texts).
Before Reading Comprehension Strategies
Strategies employed to emphasize the importance of preparing students to read text (e.g., activate prior knowledge, set a purpose for reading). access prior knowledge, preview text and any text features, predict, set purposes for
A close reading is a careful and purposeful reading. It's a careful and purposeful rereading of a text. It's an encounter with the text where students really focus on what the author had to say, what the author's purpose was, what the words mean, and what the
structure of the text tells us.
During Reading Comprehension Strategies
Strategies that help students engage the meanings of a text (e.g., asking questions at critical junctures; modeling the thought process used to make inferences, constructing mental imagery, monitor and clarify comprehension, ask questions, visualize, adjust purposes and/or predictions; and make connections within the
text as well as between the text and personal experience/previous knowledge).
Groups of students who share instructional needs and abilities that are regrouped as this changes. Permitting students to work in mixed levels in classrooms according to the specific task and then regrouping students as their needs and outcomes change.
A process in which students interact with a text before, during, and after reading as they actively construct meaning from the text. One example of this process might be that a reader makes a comment during the reading of a story: This is Liam's first day at this
school so he's probably feeling a little nervous. I wonder if someone will try to help him feel
Knowledge and experience a reader brings to the text.
the mental act of knowing when one does and does not understand what one is reading.
The cognitive process of connecting and merging ideas from different parts of the same texts or across different texts. Synthesizing is not the same as summarizing in that
summarizing is a process of putting together the most important ideas in the text. Synthesizing information from text is putting together ideas from parts of texts or from different texts, regardless of whether they are the most important ideas or not.
Text Dependent Questions
These questions require that students have actually read the text. They are questions that are answered through close reading of a complex and worthy text. Text dependent questions require that the evidence comes from text, not information from outside sources.
Text Structure/Organizational Structure
The various patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text (e.g., cause-effect, comparison, sequencing).
Used during read aloud, teachers reveal their thinking processes by verbalizing: connections, questions, inferences, and predictions.