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Terms in this set (13)
Why is the study of the cardiovascular system so important to psychophysiologists?
There is a clear link between the cardiovascular system reactivity and factors such as stress, mental activity etc. For example, long-term stress can have detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system leading to high blood pressure, stroke, heart failure etc. All of these disorders can have long-term negative impacts on the one's quality of life.
Describe the flow of blood through the heart, starting with the superior and inferior vena cavae.
1)Blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cavae (large veins)
2)Contraction of the right atrium forces blood into the right ventricle
3)The right ventricle contracts, forcing blood into the pulmonary artery
4) Branches of this artery lead capillaries in each lung where blood picks up oxygen and carbon dioxide is given off.
5) Oxygen rich blood from the lungs courses to the left atrium along four pulmonary veins
6) As the left atrium contracts, blood is forced into the left ventricle
7) A powerful contraction of the left ventricle forces blood into the aorta (the largest blood vessel in the body)
8) Smaller arteries branching from the aorta direct blood to all parts of the body.
9) The arteries branch to form capillaries in which the blood gives up oxygen to body cells and receives carbon dioxide from these cells.
What effect does the parasympathetic nervous system have on blood vessels?
The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) generally considered to have a relatively minor effect on blood vessels
Do fear and other strong emotions increase or decrease sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction?
Fear and strong emotions result in an increase in sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction. The impact of other emotions is less clear
What is cardiac output? Describe cardiac output at rest and during exercise.
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart for a given time period
Describe heart rate during rest, exercise and after exercise.
During rest,(for a healthy adult) resting heart rate is typically around 70 beats per minute, the heart increases during exercise. The heart rate decreases after exercise, but is still faster than at rest.
When we are under stress, does finger temperature increase or decrease? Why?
Under stress, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) "kicks in". Blood is diverted away from skin toward muscle, also SNS causes vasodilation of the arterioles so that more blood gets to muscle. These two factors contribute to decrease in skin temperature in the fingers.
Describe the effects of resting respiratory cycle on heart rate during inspiration.
During inhalation, thoracic cavity pressure decreases, causing a decrease in venous pressure, leading to decrease in cardiac output, leading to decrease in arteriole pressure, leading to decrease in baroceptor firing, and ultimately leading to an increase in heart rate.
Describe the resting respiratory cycle on heart during expiration.
During exhalation, the thoracic cavity pressure increases, causing an increase in venous pressure, leading to an increase in cardiac output, leading to an increase in arteriole pressure, leading to an increase in baroceptor firing and ultimately leading to a decrease in heart rate.
The initial impulse that triggers the contraction of the heart begins in the______?
What doe the P wave, QRS complex and T wave represent?
The P wave corresponds with the start of atrial contraction and the QRS complex corresponds to the initiation of ventricular contractions. The T wave corresponds to the refractory period and recovery period following ventricular contraction
What are arrhythmias? What factors influence them?
arrhythmias are changing in heart rate. Factors that influence them include inhalation and exhalation, diet, posture, exercise, emotional excitement and mental activity
A commonly used measure of cardiac activity is heart rate. How is heart rate defined?
heart beat is the number of beats per unit of time (usually in minutes)
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