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Chapters 1 to 5
Terms in this set (92)
Aristotle divided motion into what 2 classes?
proceeds from the "nature" of an object. motion that is straight up or straight down
Violent Motion is...
resulted from pushing or pulling forces. Imposed motion resulting from an external push or pull
Who easily demolished Aristotle's falling-body hypothesis?
what was Galileo's concept of inertia?
In the absence of a force, objects once set in motion tend to continue moving indefinitely
Galileo's Discovery from leaning tower of Pisa
In the absence of friction, no force is necessary to keep a horizontally moving object moving.
The use of inclined planes for Galileo's experiments helped him to
discover the property called inertia
•Quantity of matter in an object
•Measure of inertia or sluggishness that an object exhibits in response to any effort made to start it, stop it, or change its state of motion in any way
•Amount of gravitational pull on an object
•Proportional to mass
twice the mass...
twice the weight
Mass involves how much matter an object contains, and volume..
involves how much space an object occupies
the concept of inertia mostly involves...
1 kg weighs how many newtons?
When the string is pulled down slowly, the top string breaks, which best illustrates the
weight of the ball
When the string is pulled down quickly, the bottom string breaks, which best illustrates the
mass of the ball
the measure of how much mass occupies a given space
equation for density
The density of 1 kilogram of iron is
the same on the moon
both mass and volume of 1 kilogram of iron is the same everywhere, so density is the same everywhere
•combination of all forces that act on an object
•changes an object's motion
A cart is pushed to the right with a force of 15 N while being pulled to the left with a force of 20 N. The net force on the cart is
5N to the left
The vector sum of forces acting on a non-accelerating object or system of objects equals zero.
Mathematical notation: F = 0.
The equilibrium rule, F = 0, applies to
•is force that supports
an object on the surface
•is also normal force
When you stand on two bathroom scales, with one foot on each scale and weight evenly distributed, each scale will read
half your weight
An object that moves at constant velocity is in
A bowling ball is in equilibrium when it
is at rest and when it moves steadily in a straight line path.
•the resistive force that opposes the motion or attempted motion of an object through a fluid or past another object with which it is in contact
•always acts in a direction to oppose motion
is described as the distance covered per amount of travel time
Equation for speed:
Speed = distance covered/traveled time
•is total distance traveled divided by travel time
•is speed at any instant of time
The average speed in driving 30 km in 1 hour is the same average speed as driving
60km in 2 hours
A hungry bee sees a flower in a 5-m/s breeze. How fast and in what direction should the bee fly in order to hover above the flower?
A. It should fly toward the flower, then at 5 m/s into the breeze.
Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes with time. The change in velocity may be in magnitude, in direction, or both.
Equation for acceleration:
Acceleration =change of velocity/time interval
An automobile cannot maintain a constant speed when
accelerating and rounding a curve
When the only force acting
on a falling object is gravity,
(with negligible air
resistance), the object is
in a state of free fall.
If a falling object gains 10 m/s each second it falls, its acceleration is
10 m/s per second
A free-falling object has a speed of 30 m/s at one instant. Exactly one second later its speed will be
more than 35 m/s
Newton's first law of motion
The law of inertia: (originating with Galileo)
Every object continues in a state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a nonzero force.
A sheet of paper can be quickly withdrawn from under a soft-drink can without the can toppling, because
the can has inertia
If you swing a stone overhead in a horizontal circle and the string breaks, the tendency of the stone is to follow a
straight line path
Newtons second law of motion
The law of acceleration:
The acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Newtons third law of motion
whenever an object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object
Mass * Velovity = what
Consider a cart pushed along a track with a certain force. If the force remains the same while the mass of the cart decreases to half, the acceleration of the cart...
At one instant an object in free fall has a speed of 40 m/s. Its speed one second later is
A 5-kg iron ball and a 10-kg iron ball are dropped from rest. For negligible air resistance, the acceleration of the heavier ball will be
When acceleration is less than g we call that
When a 20-N falling object encounters 5 N of air resistance, its acceleration of fall is
less than g
As a skydiver falls faster and faster through the air, air resistance
As a skydiver continues to fall faster and faster through the air, net force
what is a force?
Force is simply a push or a pull.
A soccer player kicks a ball with 1500 N of force. The ball exerts a reaction force against the player's foot of
the greater the mass.. the smaller the acceleration or the greater the acceleration?
When a cannon is fired, the accelerations of the cannon and cannonball are different, because the
masses are different
Two people of equal mass on slippery ice push off from each other. Will both move at the same speed in opposite directions?
When the speed of an object is doubled, its momentum
equation for impulse?
impulse = force x time = Ft
When the force that produces an impulse acts for twice as much time, the impulse is
increased by 2 times
When a dish falls, will the change in momentum be less if it lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor?
no, both are the same
what is the Law of conservation of momentum?
In the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged.
what is the Elastic collision?
is defined as a collision whereupon objects collide without permanent deformation or the generation of heat.
what is an Inelastic collision?
is defined as a collision whereupon colliding objects become tangled or coupled together, generating heat. (Inelastic collisions are often sticky.)
Freight Car A is moving toward identical Freight Car B that is at rest. When they collide, both freight cars couple together. Compared with the initial speed of Freight Car A, the speed of the coupled freight cars is
If you push against a stationary brick wall for several minutes, you do no work..
on the wall
Equation for gravitational potential energy?
Equation for gravitational potential energy:
PE = weight x height
PE = mgh
What is kinetic energy?
is defined as the energy of a moving body
Equation for kinetic energy:
Kinetic energy = 1/2 mass x speed^2
KE = 1/2 mv^2
Must a car with momentum have kinetic energy?
yes due to motion alone
In an ideal pulley system, a woman lifts a 100-N crate by pulling a rope downward with a force of 25 N. For every one-meter length of rope she pulls downward, the crate rises
The force of gravity between two planets depends on their
masses and distance apart
If the masses of two planets are each somehow doubled, the force of gravity between them
If the mass of one planet is somehow doubled, the force of gravity between it and a neighboring planet would
When an elevator accelerates upward, your weight reading on a scale is
The velocity of a typical projectile can be represented by horizontal and vertical components. Assuming negligible air resistance, the horizontal component along the path of the projectile
remains the same
A ball tossed at an angle of 30 with the horizontal will go as far downrange as one tossed at the same speed at an angle of
When you toss a projectile sideways, it curves as it falls. It will be an Earth satellite if the curve it makes
matches the curved surface Earth.
When a satellite travels at constant speed, the shape of its path is
When a projectile achieves escape speed from Earth, it
outruns the influence of Earth's gravity but is never beyond it.
A completely submerged object always displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume.
On which of these blocks submerged in water is the buoyant force greatest?
A.1 kg of lead.
B. 1 kg of aluminum.
C. 1 kg of uranium.
D. All the same.
1 kg of aluminum
When you squeeze a party balloon to 0.8 its volume, the pressure in the balloon
is 1.25 times greater
States that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid
A 10-kg load on the left piston will support a 500-kg load on the right piston. How does the pressure of fluid against the lower part of the left piston compare with the pressure against the lower right piston?
same pressure on each
States that where the speed of a fluid increases, internal pressure in the fluid decreases
what is a laminar flow?
Smooth steady flow of constant density fluid
what is a Turbulent flow?
Flow speed above a critical point becomes chaotic
What happens to the internal water pressure in a narrowing pipe of moving water?
pressure is less
who was gravity discovered by?
if the earths radius shrunk, your weight on the shrunken surface would be more, less, or the same?
Pair of 3N and 4N cant have a result of?
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