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Freshman Biology - Chapter 10 - Cell Growth and Division

cell division

process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

asexual reproduction

process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

sexual reproduction

type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to fore the first cell of a new organism


threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next


substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones

cell cycle

series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells


period of the cell cycle between cell divisions


part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides


division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells


first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible


region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach


one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome


structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division


phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell


phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell


phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin


one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

growth factor

one of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells


process of programmed cell death


disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth


mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue


developing stage of a multicellular organism


process in which cells become specialized in structure and function


cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body (including the cells that make up the extraembryonic membranes and placenta)


stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells


cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types

stem cell

unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells


cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells

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