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28 terms

Freshman Biology - Chapter 10 - Cell Growth and Division

Freshman Biology - Chapter 10 - Cell Growth and Division
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cell division
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
asexual reproduction
process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to fore the first cell of a new organism
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next
chromatin
substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
cell cycle
series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
mitosis
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
centromere
region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach
chromatid
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
centriole
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
metaphase
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
anaphase
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
telophase
phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin
cyclin
one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
growth factor
one of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells
apoptosis
process of programmed cell death
cancer
disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth
tumor
mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue
embryo
developing stage of a multicellular organism
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
totipotent
cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body (including the cells that make up the extraembryonic membranes and placenta)
blastocyst
stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells
pluripotent
cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types
stem cell
unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells
multipotent
cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells