Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Microbiology Chapter 5
Terms in this set (46)
List the six different cell types that viruses infect. These cell types act as the host to the virus
Who proposed that living things smaller than bacteria could cause disease and proposed the term "virus"
Are bacteria filterable? What about viruses? Why are viruses filterable?
Bacteria are not filterable, while viruses are. Viruses are small enough to pass through filters.
Why are viruses considered obligate intracellular infectious agents?
They are a type of obligate intracellular infectious agents because they cannot multiply unless they invade a host cell and instruct its genetic metabolic machinery to make/ release new viruses.
List the seven properties of a virus.
~Obligate intracellular parasites of bacteria, protozoa, fungi, algae, planta, and animals
~Are not cells and do not independently fulfill the characteristics of life
~Inactive outside the host cell and only active inside a host cell
~Basic structure consists of protein coat around nucleic acid (Genetic Material)
~Multiply by taking control of the host's cells genetic material to regulate the synthesis and assembly of new viruses
~Lack enzymes (Proteins) for metabolic process
~Lack machinery of synthesizing proteins (Ribosomes)
A virus has an external covering made up of a ______________ (coat) and in some viruses also an envelope.
The central core of all viruses contains _________ acid that can come in the form of ______ or ______.
The central core of some viruses can also contain ______ proteins and _______.
Naked viruses are only made up of a _________ and _______ acid which together are called the ___________.
The ______ is external to the capsid and is acquired from the host cell's ________ when the virus exits the host cell.
Protein ______ project externally from the viral capsid and envelope to allow viruses to attach to host cells. They act as "keys" to attach to "locks" on the host membrane.
The capsid is made up of individual protein subunits called __________.
List the two shapes of animal viruses as determined by the capsid. Which one is a 20 sided figure with 12 evenly spaced corners?
Helical and Icosahedral ; Icosahedral
List the shape of viruses that infect bacteria.
Viral genetic material can be one of the following ____ DNA, ___ DNA, ___ RNA, or ___ RNA.
If the genetic material is ssRNA it can be either ___ sense RNA or ___ RNA.
Which one from #16 is ready for translation into protein? Which must be converted before translation?
~Positive= sense RNA is ready for immediate translation
~Negative= sense RNA must be converted before translation
Some viruses are called ________ viruses because they contain an enzyme that can convert RNA to DNA. The _____ virus is an example of this kind of virus.
What is the name of the enzyme from #18 that converts
RNA into DNA?
List the six phases of the viral replication cycle in order.
~Penetration dependent on envelope or naked
~Uncoating always occurs inside host
~Synthesis may occur in both nucleus and cytoplasm
~Assembly occurs may occur in both cytoplasm and nucleus
~Release enveloped viruses by process of "budding"
Enveloped viruses are released by the process called _________.
What determines host range and tissue tropism?
They are determined by the specific host molecule
Define tissue tropism
Tissue Tropisms: specificities of viruses for certain tissues
Which phase of the virus replication cycle involves specificity?
Which phase of the virus replication cycle may involve endocytosis?
_________ always occurs inside the host and is the phase when the nucleic acid is released from the capsid.
In general, most DNA virus synthesis and assembly occur in the host cell's _________ , while most RNA viruses synthesis and assembly occur in the host cell's _________
As burst size increases and burst time decreases the potential of a small number of virions to cause disease increases or decreases?
Enveloped viruses typically are released by _______ whereas naked viruses may actually _______ their host cell when released.
destroy by lysis
Are protein spikes host cell proteins or are they derived from genetic information contained in the viral nucleic acid?
derived from viral nucleic acid cell protein
Define cytopathic effect (CPE)
CPE= virus= Induced damage to the cell that alters its microscopic appearance
List four CPE seen in infected cells
~Gross changes in shape and size
~Development of intracellular changes
Define persistent infections
Persistent infections are characterized as those in which the virus is not cleared but remains in specific cells of infected individuals
______ viruses will incorporate their DNA into the host cell's DNA.
The incorporated viral DNA is called a ________ and these type of infections are called chronic ______ infections.
List two viruses that cause chronic latent infections.
~Herpes Simplex Virus
~Herpes Zoster Virus
_______ viruses are those that can cause cancer.
List four transformational effects of a cell caused by an oncogenic virus.
~Increased rate of growth
~Alterations in chrosomes
~Changes in the cells surface molecules
~Capacity to divide for an indefinite period
List two ways a virus can cause cancer in animals
~Virus carries genes that directly cause cancer
~Virus produces proteins that induce a loss of growth regulation in the cell
List three cancer causing viruses
List the three ways viruses are cultivated.
~Grown in culture eggs
List the three purposes for cultivating viruses
~Isolated and identify viruses in clinical specimens
~Prepase viruses for vaccines
~Dodetailed research on viral culture, multiplication cycles, genetics, and effects on host cells
Name two noncellular infectious agents other than viruses
Prion and viroids
Which one causes spongiform encephalopathies and name one human disease
What is a satellite virus and name two
Satellite Virus: Dependent on other viruses for replication
~AAV: Adeno-Associated Virus
Are antibiotics effective against viruses? Name three treatments for a viral infection.
Recommended textbook explanations
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Texas Science Fusion: Grade 7
Sets with similar terms
Microbiology Chapter 6
micro ch 5 viruses
Exam 2 Study Guide Ch 13 Viruses
Other sets by this creator
Pharmacology Chapter 7
Mental Health Chapter 4 Treatment Settings and The…
Pharmacology - chapter 1: fall 2021
Nursing summer 2021 study set week 1&2