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SPHR 372 Exam 2
Terms in this set (135)
What is toddlerhood associated with?
More outward focus
What develops around 20 months?
Generalization and Categorization
What is fast mapping?
Learning a word after hearing it only once
What is chunking?
A memory strategy that combines numbers to remember easier
8365309 becomes 836-5309
What are the characteristics of first words?
Nouns (concrete concepts)
Words referring to the whole object
What are the word learning constraints?
1. Whole object assumption: assuming a word refers to the whole object
2. Taxonomic/extension: words can be extended to other similar objects (not thematically similar)
3. Novel name/nameless category: a new word is associated with an object that has no name
What are examples of probabilities?
Whole object assumption
What precedes production?
What is bootstrapping?
Using existing knowledge to acquire new knowledge
What is the difference between semantic and syntactic bootstrapping?
Syntactic: Using syntactic knowledge to learn word meanings
Semantic: Using semantic knowledge to learn word order of sentences
What are the cognitive and social prerequisites of word learning?
Building a lexicon
Tracking and creating sequences of sounds and words
Theory of mind
Joint reference skills
What is the difference between overextension and under extension?
Overextension: When understanding is too broad (calling a wolf a dog)
Underextension: when understanding is too narrow (not calling a Pomeranian a dog)
What is reference?
When words refer to entities and have real life representations
What is a formula?
A verbal routine that has been memorized, not analyzed
What is a turnabout?
A response to the person's comment and then a new question/prompt.
What are the communicative intentions?
Control (to protest)
Representational (requesting an answer, to label, to answer)
Expressive (exclaim, comment, state feeling)
Tutorial (repeat, learn and practice)
Procedural (gain attention)
Which multiword combinations follow syntactic rules?
Item based constructions
Word combinations do not follow syntactic rules
What is a reformulation or recast?
Making the utterance longer and grammatically appropriate for clarification
Trying to repeat what you think the child is trying to say without adding semantic content
What is expansion?
Providing a more mature version of the child's utterance with additional information (doggy eat becomes "the doggy is eating his dinner)
What is extension?
A comment or reply that extends more semantic information (doggy eat becomes "yes, because the doggy is hungry"
What is the difference between reduplication and CVCV construction?
Reduplication: Changing the second syllable to match the first syllable
CVCV: Making a CVC word into a CVCV word
What is a word combination?
Word combinations that do not follow syntactic rules
What is a pivot schema?
One word sets up a schema that allows for many nouns to fit in the slot
What are item based constructions?
Follow word order or syntactic rules
What is parallel play?
Playing separately but next to each other
What are proto-narratives?
Stories that are not full-fledged
What is an evocative utterance?
Naming an entity and waiting for a response
What is hypothesis testing?
Naming an entity with rising intonation
What is an interrogative utterance?
Asking "what is that" about an entity
What is bidirectional bootstrapping?
Strong language skills can strengthen cognition skills and vice versa (strong cognitive skills can strengthen language skills)
What is sequencing important for?
Planning and producing longer utterances
Planning and producing coherent narratives
Planning and executing complex role playing
Why are adjectives more challenging to understand than nouns?
They refer to properties of an entity which conflicts with the 'whole object' assumption
What are relational terms?
Temporal relations (before, since, while)
Locational relations (in, on)
Kinship terms (brother, sister)
Physical relations (large, small)
What are deictic terms?
Words whose use and interpretation depend on the location of a speaker and listener
What is centering?
Having a central focus to the narrative
What are heaps?
A random collection of ideas that have no central focus
"a girl is eating cookies. The man got on the train"
What are centering heaps?
Building a narrative around a central focus
"Doggy goes woof, piggy goes oink"
What are presuppositional skills?
Recognizing what the listener does and doesn't know
What are elliptical responses?
Omitting information from a response
"What are you doing" responds as "Playing" instead of "I'm playing this game"
What is retelling?
Retelling fictional stories
What is a personal narrative?
Telling about a personal experience
What is a fictional narrative?
Relating past, present, or future events that are not real
Whole object assumption:
assuming a word refers to the whole object
words can be extended to other similar objects (not thematically similar)
Novel name/nameless category:
a new word is associated with an object that has no name
Adult's semantically related comment on a topic established by a child. For example, when a child says, "Doggie eat," an adult might reply, "The doggie is eating."
A pattern-finding technique that accounts for how children confine abstractions about language by doing something in the same way successfully several times, thus making it habitual.
Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child seeks confirmation of the name of an entity by naming it with rising intonation, thus posing a yes/no question.
A cognitive skill humans share with other primates that enables us to find common threads in disparate information, such as seeking underlying rules for language.
A pattern-finding technique that accounts for how children create abstract syntactic constructions from concrete pieces of language by understanding the relationship across schemes. If X is Y-ing the Z and the A is B-ing the C, then a child sees that X and A play analogous roles, as do C and Z.
Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child attempts to learn the name of an entity by asking "What?" or "Wassat?"
Adult's more mature version of a child's utterance that preserves the word order of the original child utterance. For example, when a child says, "Doggie eat," an adult might reply, "The doggie is eating."
A uniquely human social cognitive skill used in understanding language behavior of others.
A pattern-finding technique that accounts for how children confine abstractions about language based on the notion that if someone communicates to me using one form rather than another, there was a reason for that choice related to the speaker's specific communicative intention.
Request for clarification, such as "What or "Huh?"
Adult recasting of a child's utterance that makes it more grammatically correct, adds new information, or changes the form.
request for clarification
Request from the listener for restatement of or additional information on some unclear utterance of the speaker.
Memorized verbal routine or unanalyzed chunk of language often used in everyday conversation.
A pattern-finding technique that accounts for how children create abstract syntactic constructions from concrete pieces of language they have heard by forming schemes or concepts for specific functions and individual words to fill the slots in each.
Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child imitates those language features that he or she is in the process of learning (not done randomly).
Conversational device used by a parent/caregiver with a preschooler to maintain the conversation and aid the child in making on-topic comments. In its usual form, it consists of a comment on or reply to the child's utterance followed by a cue, such as a question, for the child to reply.
Functionally based distributional analysis
A pattern-finding technique that accounts for how children form linguistic categories, such as nouns and verbs, based on communicative function. Over time, linguistic items that serve the same communicative function are grouped together into a category based on what these units do.
Process of learning language in which a child uses what he or she knows to decode more mature language. For example, the child may use semantic knowledge to aid in decoding and learning syntax.
Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child names an entity and awaits adult evaluative feedback as to the correctness of the name or label.
consonant cluster reduction
Phonological process seen in preschool children in which one or more consonants are deleted from a cluster of two or more in order to simplify production (e.g. sleep becomes seep)
Quick, sketchy, and tentative formation of a link between a particular referent and a new name that enables a child to have access to and use the word in an immediate although somewhat limited way.
Two (or more) word utterance seemingly based on word-order rules with specific words influenced by how a child has head a particular word being used.
Process of learning language and culture through interactions with caregivers and others. Language is central to the process of learning culture, and cultural patterns teach children the appropriate way to communicate.
Associative complex hypothesis
Theory that each example of a meaning category shares something with a core concept. In other words, there are common elements in the meanings of pants, shirt, shoes, and hat that classify each as clothing. Vygotskyan concept.
Process of assuming which information a listener possesses or may need.
Syllable, usually consonant-vowel (CV), ending in a vowel.
Phonological process in which child repeats one syllable in a multisyllabic word, as in producing wawa for water.
Middle ear infection.
Two-word utterance consisting of roughly equivalent words that divide an experience into multiple units.
Early one-word utterances that convey a holistic communicative intent.
Process in which a child applies a word meaning to fewer exemplars than an adult would. The child's definition is too restrictive and more limited than in adult usage.
Process in which a child applies a word's meaning to more exemplars than an adult would. The child's definition is too broad and is thus beyond acceptable adult usage.
Theory that word meanings represent universal semantic features or attributes, such as animate/inanimate and male/female. For young children, meanings represent perceptual attributes.
Theory that word meanings represent dynamic relationships, such as actions or functional uses, rather than static perceptual traits.
Individual dictionary of each person containing words and the underlying concepts of each. The lexicon is dynamic, changing with experience.
The number of possible words that differ by one phoneme and a factor characteristic in shaping a child's emerging lexical system.
Prototypic complex hypothesis
Theory that word meanings represent an underlying concept exemplified by a central referent, or prototype, that is best exemplar or a composite of the concept.
Two-word utterances in which one word or phrase, such as want or more seems to structure the utterance by determining the intent of the utterance as a whole, such as a demand (e.g. More cookie, More juice, and More apple.
One member of a word class used to the exclusion of all others. For example, a may be used for all articles or he for all third person pronouns.
Variable use of members of a word class without consideration of different meanings; for example, the and a may be used randomly.
Process of using the speaker's perspective as a reference. For example, deixis can be seen in words such as this, that, here, there, me, and you.
Consists of self-generated story; familiar tale; retelling of a movie, television show, or previously heard or seen story; and personal experience recounting.
Semantic case characterized by causing action, as in Daddy is fixing my bike.
Theory of Mind (ToM)
The ability of individuals to understand the minds of other people and to comprehend and predict their behavior.
Grammatical mechanism which notifies the listener that the speaker is referring to a previous reference. Pronouns are one type of word used in anaphoric reference.
Transitional system in which a person uses rules from two or more languages simultaneously.
Narrative form consisting of a sequence of events that share attributes and lead directly from one to another.
Overall organization of a narrative.
Conversational device of omitting redundant information. For example, when asked "Who saw the movie?" we reply, "I did," not "I saw the movie."
Meaning category or class used in constructing and comprehending language.
The linking of entities in a narrative to form a story nucleus. Links may be based on similarity or complementarity of features, sequence, or causality.
Set of event sequences including the events, relationships, and relative significance.
Semantic case characterized as those for whom action is performed, as in Give the flowers to mommy.
Shared focus of a conversation that may contain one or more topics.
Syntactic bootstrapping :
Using syntactic knowledge to learn word meanings
Semantic bootstrapping :
Using semantic knowledge to learn word order of sentences
example of a turnabout
" throw ball"
"yes you threw the ball, did it go high?"
between the ages of 12 and 24 months play is typically characterized by :
use of objects in their conventional sense
parallel or solitary play
short representational play schemes such as feeding a doll
example of expansion
"mommy is eating her lunch"
characteristics of child directed speech
exaggerated intonation and stress
more restricted vocabulary
more impersonates and more questions
what is an example of extension for "doggie funny"
"he's wearing a hot dog costume!"
characteristics of selective imitation
consists of whole or partial repetition of an utterance of another speaker within no more than 3 successive child utterances
approximately 20% of toddler utterances are imitations of other speakers
it is a learning strategy primarily used between 12-24 months
example of assimilation
"gog" for dog
open syllable example
"ba" for ball
example of item based construction
example of overextension
calling all men daddy
example of underextension
saying a lab isn't a dog
example of children use of social register
playing roles like mother or child in play
imitating someones voice
when the speaker omits redundant info that has already been stated
story without cause/effect, random
story linked by similar attributes but lacks time (temporal) elements
temporal event chain
story with time based chain of events but no cause/effect
story with time based chain of events with cause/effect, concrete events
are protonarratives more sophisticated than casual chains?
storytelling is universal but not all cultures use the same _________ of telling stories
a 4 yr old who is not skilled at considering her listener during a conversation :
has developmentally appropriate conversation skills
what are the the three criteria for a word to be considered a true first word?
1. True word has a phonetic relationship to adult word
2. Child uses the word consistently
3. Child uses the word in the presence of the referent
Give two reasons why verbs could be harder to learn
1. Verbs refer to transient actions
2. Verbs have many different forms (morphological endings and irregular verb forms)
List three possible factors that could affect child language development.
1) Maternal depression; 2) neglect or abuse; 3) malnutrition
example of a social situation that uses closure
Children may say "bye", or walk away, when they are finished talking to someone
example of a social situation that uses Social register
Children can role play "mommy" or "baby" in pretend games (dramatic play) and change their speaking style for each character
example of a social situation that uses Conversational repair
Toddlers and preschool children may say "What?" or "Huh?" when they don't understand
example of a social situation that uses Topic introduction
Children may begin a topic by sharing something that they did or something that they like, e.g., "I saw a dog," or "I like cookies"
example of a social situation that uses Turn taking
Children learn from adults when they should talk and when they need to wait for their turn
example of a social situation that uses Topic maintenance
Toddlers and preschool children will make one or two comments about a topic, e.g., "I like cookies, too"
What are three possible factors that may predict a language development delay?
2. hearing problems
3. reactive temperament
example of temporal relations
When, before, since, while
example of Locational prepositions
"in the box", "on the table"
example of kinship terms
Sister, brother, grandmother, etc.
example of Physical relations - relational terms
Big/little, tall/short, hard/soft
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