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Fetal Pig Dissection Terms & Functions

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Pinna
ears - to hear
Nicitating Membrane
protects eye while pig is in amniotic fluid & placenta
Thoracic Region
dorsal - upper back, rib vertebrae
Lumbar Region
dorsal, lower back vertebrae
Sacral Region
dorsal, pelvic vertebrae
Allantoic Duct
channels urine
Scrotum
contains testes SPERM
Parotid Gland
secretes saliva, breaks down starches with enzymes
Parotid Duct
where saliva goes into mouth
Mandibular Gland
puts saliva in mouth under tongue, salivary gland in lower jaw
Masseter
bone in lower jaw, helps chew
Lymph Nodes
filters foreign particles, part of immune system
Pharynx
passageway for digestive/respiratory system
Glottis
utilized in producing sound, opening surrounded by epiglottis
Epiglottis
surrounds glottis, helps close trachea during swallowing
Eustachian Tubes
connects ear cavity to nasopharynx, aerates ear cavity, directs mucous to nasopharynx
Diaphragm
separates abdominal from thoracic cavity
Thoracic Cavity
protected by rib cage, heart & lungs
Pericardial Cavity
filled with fluid to avoid injury to heart
Pleural Cavities
contains lungs
Abdominal/Peritoneal Cavity
suspended abdominal organs
Coleomic Fluid
lubricant, keeps organs moisturized
Visceral Peritoneum
covers organs of peritoneal cavity
Parietal Peritoneum
lines peritoneal cavity
Visceral Pericardium
covers surface of heart
Parietal Pericardium
lines pericardial cavity
Visceral Pleura
covers surface of lungs
Parietal Pleura
lines pleural cavity
Messentaries
sheets of connective tissues, suspend organs, provide bridges for ducts, veins, holds together coils of small intestine
Thymus Gland
builds up immunity, produces T cells, prevents cancer, on top of trachea, on both sides
Thyroid Gland
upper area of heart, secretes thyroxine and calcito enzymes, makes proteins, controls metabolic use of energy, influences growth & development
Mouth
chewing, salivary glands - amylase
Esophagus
passageway for food, goes to stomach
Stomach
digests food, breaks it down
Meconium
early stool
Rugae
ridges in stomach, help it contract, expand, internal surface folds
Cardiac Sphincter
movement of food to stomach - close to heart
Pyloric Sphincter
movement of food through stomach, adjoins small intestine
Small Intestine
finishes digestion, absorbs nutrients, moves food to large intestine
Duodenum
bile & enzymes enter, 1st part of S.I., has bile ducts, gets secretion from pancreas and liver
Jejunum
area of nutrient absorption
Ileum
from S.I. to L. I.
Villi & Microvilli
increase surface area of intestinal wall, in absorption they play a large role
Caecum
pouch, connects Ileum to colon of large intestine, beginning of large intestine
Ileocecal Valve
muscle between S.I. and L.I., a check point for food to pass through
Colon
L.I. , extracts water & salts, forms solid waste
Rectum
final straight portion of L.I.
Anus
controls expulsion of feces
Liver
protein synthesis, detoxification
Gall Bladder
stores & releases bile to S.I.
Hepatic Duct
drains bile from liver
Cystic Duct
drains bile from gall bladder
Pancreas
enzyme producer, makes hormones
Spleen
lymphatic organ
Heart
pumps blood through body
Pericardial Sac
membrane that covers surface of heart
Coronary Artery
supplies & drains heart
Coronary Vein
drains blood from anterior ventricles
Posterior Vena Cavae
underside of heart, carries de-oxy blood from lower body regions into right atria
Right Atria
recieves blood returning to heart
Right Ventricle
recieves blood from R atria, takes blood to main pulmonary artery after pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary Trunk
takes blood to lungs
Pulmonary Artery
carries de-oxy blood to lungs UNIQUE - (arteries usually carry oxy-rich blood, but since this blood is going Away from heart, it's called an artery)
Lungs
to breathe, oxygenize blood
Pulmonary Vein
takes oxy-rich blood back to left atria UNIQUE - (veins usually carry deoxy blood, but since this blood is going To heart, it's called a vein)
Left Atria
recieves blood from pulmonary veins, blood now oxy-rich
Left Ventricle
recieves blood from left atria and pumps it into aorta
Aortic Arch
where aorta branches off into brachiocephalic, subclavian, carotid
Aorta
largest artery, carries blood to abdomen region, splits off into two arteries, provides blood pressure
Valves
between atrium and ventricles
External Jugular Vein
drains the head and neck
Internal Jugular Vein
drains the brain
Vagus Nerve
slows heart, constricts bronchi, and stimulates the stomach & gall bladder
Subclavian Vein
blood drains to brachiocephalic trunk
Right Brachiocephalic Vein & Left Brachiocephalic Vein
blood drains to brachiocephalic trunk
Anterior/Cranial Vena Cavae
blood from head, neck, arm chest, carries de-oxy blood from these places to right atria
Brachiocephalic Trunk
blood comes here from brachiocephalic veins, heads to anterior vena cavae
Right Subclavian Artery & Left Subclavian Artery
carries blood to forelimbs
Common Carotid Arteries (Right & Left)
carry blood to head
External Carotid
blood goes to face
Internal Carotid
blood goes to brain
Pathway of Blood
Right Atria - Right Ventricle - Pulmonary Trunk - Pulmonary Artery - Lungs - Pulmonary Vein - Left Atria - Left Ventricle - Aorta - Body
Hard & Soft Palates
separates nasal and oral cavities
arteries
carry blood away from heart, carry oxy-rich blood to body
veins
carry blood to heart
Coeliac Artery
supplies organs of upper abdomen (stomach, spleen, liver)
Cranial/Superior Messenteric Artery
supplies pancreas, small intestine
Adrenal Gland
cresent shaped, produces steroid hormones and adrenaline
Renal Arteries
blood carried to kidneys
External Iliac Artery
arteries of the hindlimbs
Internal Iliac Artery
rectum and hip artery
External & Internal Iliac Veins
recieves blood from lower extremities & pelvis
Common Iliac Vein
external + internal iliac vein
Renal Veins
right: blood from kidneys
left: blood from other organs as well
Pulmonary Circuit
blood to & from lungs
Systemic Circuit
blood to everywhere but lungs
Scientific Name
Sus Scrofa
Right Atrioventricular Valve
valve between the right atria and the right ventricle
Atrioventricular Valve
valve between an atria and a ventricle
Right Semilunar Valve
between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
Left Semilunar Valve
between left ventricle and aorta
Papillary Muscles
support chordae tendinae
Chordae Tendinae
support AV valves, preventing eversion
Portal System Blood Pathway
artery - capillary bed - portal vein - capillary bed - vein
Portal Systems
carry blood from capillaries of one organ to another's
Hepatic Portal System
nutrient-rich blood from mesenteric veins flow into a single mesenteric vein joins with lienogastric/gastrosplenic vein from spleen and stomach & becomes the hepatic portal vein
Hepatic Portal Vein
carries blood to liver and breaks down into a second capillary bed
Yolk sac
nutrition for growth
Amnion
watery medium
Allantois
sac to contain and isolate nitrogenous waste
Chorion
surrounds all, means by which oxy diffuses into embryo
Fetal Circulation
Nutrients & Oxygen diffuse from maternal capillaries into fetal capillaries
Larynx
conatins vocal chords, air goes through pharynx to larynx
nasal cavities
behind and above nostrils, nasopharynx conjoins this with the oral cavity
nasopharynx
upper throat behind nose, connects nasal and oral cavities
vocal chords
vibrate and emit sound, within the thyroid cartilage
bronchi
at end of trachea, branches for air to enter lungs
bronchioles
narrower tubes of bronchi, allow air into lungs
alveoli
small sac at end of bronchiole, densely surrounded by blood-carrying capillaries, diffusion of O2 into blood
trachea
tube filled with cartilagenous rings, allows air to enter larynx and bronchi, windpipe
Kidneys
remove metabolic waste from blood (urea), monitor and adjust composition of blood (so cells are bathed in constant composition) Not in peritoneal cavity
Renal Pelvis
funnel-shaped chamber, at center of kidney, drains into ureter
Medullary Tissue (Medulla)
dark tissue, extends into renal pelvis
Cortex
outermost portion of kidney, contains glomeruli, browman's capsules, proximal convoluted tubes, distal convoluted tubes
Glomeruli
dense balls of capillaries, inside a browman's capsule
Browman's Capsules
contains glomeruli,
Proximal Convoluted Tubules
connects to browman's capsule, takes through kidney, turns into distal convoluted tubule
Distal Convoluted Tubules
joins with the collecting duct
Loops of Henle
middle of the tubule, has a descending and ascending limb
Collecting Ducts
extended from distal convoluted tube, empties into renal pelvis
Ureter
coiled tube, led from kindey to urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
temporary storage for urine
Urethra
tube that transports urine from bladder to outside of body
Urogenital Opening
where the urine exits the body
Urea
metabolic waste, made from metabolizing amino acids in liver, removed by kidneys from blood
Fetal Urination
bypasses Urethra, goes through allantoic duct to the allantois, a sac for waste
Scrotum
contains testis, glands that produce sperm, and one epididymis
Gubernaculum
aid in the descent of testis
Testis
produce and store sperm,source of male hormones, male sex gland
Epididymis
coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to store, mature and transport sperm between the testis and the vas deferens
Spermatic Cord
supports testis and scrotum, extends to inguinal rings, connective tissue covered in arteries and veins
Inguinal Canal
passage in lower abdominal wall, contains sperm cord
Vas Deferens
tube/duct through which sperm travel from testis to prostate during ejaculation
Spermatic Artery
supplies blood to testis, 1/testicle
Spermatic Vein
testicular vein, comes from testis, joins with those of epididymis and joins with spermatic artery to form a trunk that leads into the vena cava
Penis
urine exits through here, transfers sperm
Seminal Vesicles
add the fluid needed for ejaculation
Prostate Gland
secretes fluid that carries sperm
Bulbourethral (Cowper's) Glands
secretes fluid to moisturize urethra and let sperm through, neutralizes urethra acid so as not to kill sperm
Urogenital Sinus/ Vaginal Vestibule
protrusion below anus, not th actual genital papilla, not present in adult females
Labia
two-folded, forms the protruding genital papilla
Genital Papilla
triangular flap within urogenital sinus/vaginal vestibule
Clitoris
small body of erectile tissue on ventral side of urogenital sinus, homologous to penis
Vagina
bound by connective tissue to urethra at urogenital sinus/vaginal vestibule
Cervix
slightly constricted region of tissue which leads to uterus, acts as a sphincter to separate the vagina from the uterus
Uterus
womb
Uterine Horns
provides the capability of having a litter
Oviducts
where fertilization occurs, extremely close to ovaries
Ovaries
the site of egg production & source of female sex organs (estrogen and progesterone)