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ears - to hear

Nicitating Membrane

protects eye while pig is in amniotic fluid & placenta

Thoracic Region

dorsal - upper back, rib vertebrae

Lumbar Region

dorsal, lower back vertebrae

Sacral Region

dorsal, pelvic vertebrae

Allantoic Duct

channels urine


contains testes SPERM

Parotid Gland

secretes saliva, breaks down starches with enzymes

Parotid Duct

where saliva goes into mouth

Mandibular Gland

puts saliva in mouth under tongue, salivary gland in lower jaw


bone in lower jaw, helps chew

Lymph Nodes

filters foreign particles, part of immune system


passageway for digestive/respiratory system


utilized in producing sound, opening surrounded by epiglottis


surrounds glottis, helps close trachea during swallowing

Eustachian Tubes

connects ear cavity to nasopharynx, aerates ear cavity, directs mucous to nasopharynx


separates abdominal from thoracic cavity

Thoracic Cavity

protected by rib cage, heart & lungs

Pericardial Cavity

filled with fluid to avoid injury to heart

Pleural Cavities

contains lungs

Abdominal/Peritoneal Cavity

suspended abdominal organs

Coleomic Fluid

lubricant, keeps organs moisturized

Visceral Peritoneum

covers organs of peritoneal cavity

Parietal Peritoneum

lines peritoneal cavity

Visceral Pericardium

covers surface of heart

Parietal Pericardium

lines pericardial cavity

Visceral Pleura

covers surface of lungs

Parietal Pleura

lines pleural cavity


sheets of connective tissues, suspend organs, provide bridges for ducts, veins, holds together coils of small intestine

Thymus Gland

builds up immunity, produces T cells, prevents cancer, on top of trachea, on both sides

Thyroid Gland

upper area of heart, secretes thyroxine and calcito enzymes, makes proteins, controls metabolic use of energy, influences growth & development


chewing, salivary glands - amylase


passageway for food, goes to stomach


digests food, breaks it down


early stool


ridges in stomach, help it contract, expand, internal surface folds

Cardiac Sphincter

movement of food to stomach - close to heart

Pyloric Sphincter

movement of food through stomach, adjoins small intestine

Small Intestine

finishes digestion, absorbs nutrients, moves food to large intestine


bile & enzymes enter, 1st part of S.I., has bile ducts, gets secretion from pancreas and liver


area of nutrient absorption


from S.I. to L. I.

Villi & Microvilli

increase surface area of intestinal wall, in absorption they play a large role


pouch, connects Ileum to colon of large intestine, beginning of large intestine

Ileocecal Valve

muscle between S.I. and L.I., a check point for food to pass through


L.I. , extracts water & salts, forms solid waste


final straight portion of L.I.


controls expulsion of feces


protein synthesis, detoxification

Gall Bladder

stores & releases bile to S.I.

Hepatic Duct

drains bile from liver

Cystic Duct

drains bile from gall bladder


enzyme producer, makes hormones


lymphatic organ


pumps blood through body

Pericardial Sac

membrane that covers surface of heart

Coronary Artery

supplies & drains heart

Coronary Vein

drains blood from anterior ventricles

Posterior Vena Cavae

underside of heart, carries de-oxy blood from lower body regions into right atria

Right Atria

recieves blood returning to heart

Right Ventricle

recieves blood from R atria, takes blood to main pulmonary artery after pulmonary trunk

Pulmonary Trunk

takes blood to lungs

Pulmonary Artery

carries de-oxy blood to lungs UNIQUE - (arteries usually carry oxy-rich blood, but since this blood is going Away from heart, it's called an artery)


to breathe, oxygenize blood

Pulmonary Vein

takes oxy-rich blood back to left atria UNIQUE - (veins usually carry deoxy blood, but since this blood is going To heart, it's called a vein)

Left Atria

recieves blood from pulmonary veins, blood now oxy-rich

Left Ventricle

recieves blood from left atria and pumps it into aorta

Aortic Arch

where aorta branches off into brachiocephalic, subclavian, carotid


largest artery, carries blood to abdomen region, splits off into two arteries, provides blood pressure


between atrium and ventricles

External Jugular Vein

drains the head and neck

Internal Jugular Vein

drains the brain

Vagus Nerve

slows heart, constricts bronchi, and stimulates the stomach & gall bladder

Subclavian Vein

blood drains to brachiocephalic trunk

Right Brachiocephalic Vein & Left Brachiocephalic Vein

blood drains to brachiocephalic trunk

Anterior/Cranial Vena Cavae

blood from head, neck, arm chest, carries de-oxy blood from these places to right atria

Brachiocephalic Trunk

blood comes here from brachiocephalic veins, heads to anterior vena cavae

Right Subclavian Artery & Left Subclavian Artery

carries blood to forelimbs

Common Carotid Arteries (Right & Left)

carry blood to head

External Carotid

blood goes to face

Internal Carotid

blood goes to brain

Pathway of Blood

Right Atria - Right Ventricle - Pulmonary Trunk - Pulmonary Artery - Lungs - Pulmonary Vein - Left Atria - Left Ventricle - Aorta - Body

Hard & Soft Palates

separates nasal and oral cavities


carry blood away from heart, carry oxy-rich blood to body


carry blood to heart

Coeliac Artery

supplies organs of upper abdomen (stomach, spleen, liver)

Cranial/Superior Messenteric Artery

supplies pancreas, small intestine

Adrenal Gland

cresent shaped, produces steroid hormones and adrenaline

Renal Arteries

blood carried to kidneys

External Iliac Artery

arteries of the hindlimbs

Internal Iliac Artery

rectum and hip artery

External & Internal Iliac Veins

recieves blood from lower extremities & pelvis

Common Iliac Vein

external + internal iliac vein

Renal Veins

right: blood from kidneys
left: blood from other organs as well

Pulmonary Circuit

blood to & from lungs

Systemic Circuit

blood to everywhere but lungs

Scientific Name

Sus Scrofa

Right Atrioventricular Valve

valve between the right atria and the right ventricle

Atrioventricular Valve

valve between an atria and a ventricle

Right Semilunar Valve

between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

Left Semilunar Valve

between left ventricle and aorta

Papillary Muscles

support chordae tendinae

Chordae Tendinae

support AV valves, preventing eversion

Portal System Blood Pathway

artery - capillary bed - portal vein - capillary bed - vein

Portal Systems

carry blood from capillaries of one organ to another's

Hepatic Portal System

nutrient-rich blood from mesenteric veins flow into a single mesenteric vein joins with lienogastric/gastrosplenic vein from spleen and stomach & becomes the hepatic portal vein

Hepatic Portal Vein

carries blood to liver and breaks down into a second capillary bed

Yolk sac

nutrition for growth


watery medium


sac to contain and isolate nitrogenous waste


surrounds all, means by which oxy diffuses into embryo

Fetal Circulation

Nutrients & Oxygen diffuse from maternal capillaries into fetal capillaries


conatins vocal chords, air goes through pharynx to larynx

nasal cavities

behind and above nostrils, nasopharynx conjoins this with the oral cavity


upper throat behind nose, connects nasal and oral cavities

vocal chords

vibrate and emit sound, within the thyroid cartilage


at end of trachea, branches for air to enter lungs


narrower tubes of bronchi, allow air into lungs


small sac at end of bronchiole, densely surrounded by blood-carrying capillaries, diffusion of O2 into blood


tube filled with cartilagenous rings, allows air to enter larynx and bronchi, windpipe


remove metabolic waste from blood (urea), monitor and adjust composition of blood (so cells are bathed in constant composition) Not in peritoneal cavity

Renal Pelvis

funnel-shaped chamber, at center of kidney, drains into ureter

Medullary Tissue (Medulla)

dark tissue, extends into renal pelvis


outermost portion of kidney, contains glomeruli, browman's capsules, proximal convoluted tubes, distal convoluted tubes


dense balls of capillaries, inside a browman's capsule

Browman's Capsules

contains glomeruli,

Proximal Convoluted Tubules

connects to browman's capsule, takes through kidney, turns into distal convoluted tubule

Distal Convoluted Tubules

joins with the collecting duct

Loops of Henle

middle of the tubule, has a descending and ascending limb

Collecting Ducts

extended from distal convoluted tube, empties into renal pelvis


coiled tube, led from kindey to urinary bladder

Urinary Bladder

temporary storage for urine


tube that transports urine from bladder to outside of body

Urogenital Opening

where the urine exits the body


metabolic waste, made from metabolizing amino acids in liver, removed by kidneys from blood

Fetal Urination

bypasses Urethra, goes through allantoic duct to the allantois, a sac for waste


contains testis, glands that produce sperm, and one epididymis


aid in the descent of testis


produce and store sperm,source of male hormones, male sex gland


coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to store, mature and transport sperm between the testis and the vas deferens

Spermatic Cord

supports testis and scrotum, extends to inguinal rings, connective tissue covered in arteries and veins

Inguinal Canal

passage in lower abdominal wall, contains sperm cord

Vas Deferens

tube/duct through which sperm travel from testis to prostate during ejaculation

Spermatic Artery

supplies blood to testis, 1/testicle

Spermatic Vein

testicular vein, comes from testis, joins with those of epididymis and joins with spermatic artery to form a trunk that leads into the vena cava


urine exits through here, transfers sperm

Seminal Vesicles

add the fluid needed for ejaculation

Prostate Gland

secretes fluid that carries sperm

Bulbourethral (Cowper's) Glands

secretes fluid to moisturize urethra and let sperm through, neutralizes urethra acid so as not to kill sperm

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