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HIST 221 Lesson 2
Terms in this set (22)
Discuss the impact of the industrial revolution on the American economy, the nation's leading industrialists, and the common workers. In your opinion, which features of the industrial revolution were positive and which were negative? On balance, was the industrial revolution desirable or undesirable?
The industrial revolution had many different positive and negative sides, but overall it was a negative time for people who tried to forge a living in it's harsh environment. Some negative outcomes where the way workers were exploited, systems like the bessemer process became vertically integrated and exploited, and entire industries came under the control of one company as monopoies were formed.
Bessemer & Steel mills
Strikes occured everywhere
- cheaper products that everyone could buy- increase in world manufacturing output --money and progress
Felt positive effects: factory owners- upper middle class- gov't- landowners- businesses
felt negative effects: slums --crowded, dirty, polluted- child labor --forced to work to make money for family- lack of education- dependent on wealthy for livelihood
This was the period from 1870 until 1890 in which worldwide prices fell steadily. Income went up dramatically between 1877 and 1900.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
His new plant became a model for the industry, setting in motion replacement of the iron mills that had one dotted western Pennsylvania by giant steel mills.
Bessemer Process/Henry Bessemer
A cheap and efficient process for making steel, developed around 1850
He designed a furnace the ____ converter that refined raw pig iron into any essentially new product: steel, a metal more durable and cheaper to produce because there was no hands on labor
American financier and railroad developer who, along with James Fisk, attempted to corner the gold market in 1869
Control the airy, Wabash, union pacific, and Missouri pacific railroad and always remained a stock market speculator at heart. Early promoter of integrated railroads.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Gustavus F. Swift Invested in a fleet of refrigerator cars and constructed a central packing plant next to the Chicago stockyards. He constructed facilities to process the fertilizer chemicals, and other usable by products.
His system was capable of handling within its own structure all the functions of an industry.
Acquisition of sex-appropriate preferences, behaviors, skills, and self-concept (i.e., the acquisition of gender roles)
(v.) to limit, be sparing or frugal; (n.) a limit or restriction; a fixed share of work or duty; a period of activity
A self imposed limit on how much people would produce each day
the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace
Managers would assume the burden of gathering together all of the traditional knowledge whereas before the workmen did, and the workers would do what they are told promptly without asking any questions.
Employers attempted to manage their workers by holding them to a regimen of production.
Frederick W Taylor's idea
Not a great success, embittered relations on the shop floor
Knights of Labor
labor union that sought to organize all workers and focused on broad social reforms
1869, A secret society of garment workers in Philadelphia, became national movement, had a spirit of comradeship.
Intended to set up factories and shops that would be owned and run by the employees.
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor, 1886. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Pure and simple unionism: Strictly limited to workers, no participation by middle-class reformers.
Simple referred to goals; wages, hours, and working conditions that benefited workers. It aimed at collective bargaining with employers.
Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.
Homestead Steel Strike
In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.
Armed guards hired by the Pinkerton detective agency would take possession of the steel works.
Great steel works was taken over by strikebreakers, while union leaders and town officials were arrested on charges of riot, murder, and treason.
Marked the beginning of the end for trade unions in the steel industry.
Nationwide railroad workers' boycott of trains carrying Pullman cars in 1894 after Pullman workers, suffering radically reduced wages, joined the American Railway Union (ARU) and union leaders were fired in response. The boycott ended after the U.S. Army fired on strikers and ARU leader Eugene Debs was jailed.
Battle between Pullman boycotters and the trunk line railroads. The strikers wanted to prevent the poor car trains from running in the railroads wanted the trains to keep moving. Arrival of federal troops meant strikers were defeated.
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.
After being in jail, he emerged as an avowed radical, committed to a lifelong struggle against a system that enabled employers to enlist the powers of government to beat down working people.
Western Federation of Miners
Formed in 1893, this militant union gained strength in the Rocky Mountain states. It formed many strikes every time owners refused to renegotiate.
The powerful new corporations that were taking over wanted to get rid of the minors union. Silver and copper prices were dropping which cut mine or his wages, resulting in strikes in violence.
The WFM joined in 1905 with socialist to create the industrial workers of the world a.k.a. wobblies, supported Marxist theories
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
The innovative spirit of the industrial revolution was a pitta mise by this greatest inventor. Tried to sue George Westinghouse, lost a lot of money, Edison's company was sold and formed another company called General Electric.
Demonstrated that electricity could kill which led to the adoption of the electric chair as a form of execution in New York.
A process that extended the protections of the Bill of Rights against the actions of state and local governments
Enabled private capital to be raised in prodigies amounts. It could also borrow money by issuing interest-bearing bonds, which was how the railroads actually raised most of the money they needed.
Investors were not personally liable for the railroads debt, they only risk the money they had invested.
Progress and Poverty (1879)
Critical of entrepreneurs, after studying poverty in America, George determined that rich didn't pay fair share of taxes and proposed "Single Tax" on incremental value of land.
He advised that the government should reclaim wealth acquired through luck rather than labor.
A shift away from preindustrial work rhythms which varied with the seasons. Change to being based upon the clock and whistle and impervious to changes in the season. Average day was 10 hours, six days a week.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
(1911) 146 women killed out of 500 workers while locked into the burning building (brought attention to poor working conditions)
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
He thought that industrialization had produced fabulous wealth for a few, had affordable commodities for the masses and improved the standard of living, and then in large factories the industrialist had little if any contact with his employers, resulting in friction between capital and labor and between the rich and poor.
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