Certain lung cancers can secrete PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related-protein), which, while distinct from PTH, binds and activates PTH receptors. Which of the following laboratory findings would be consistent with a patient that had a PTHrP-secreting tumor?
A. ↓ Serum [calcium], ↑ PTH, ↓ risk of nephrolithiasis
B. ↑ Serum [calcium], ↑ PTH, ↑ risk of nephrolithiasis
C. ↑ Serum [calcium], ↓ PTH, ↑ risk of nephrolithiasis
D. ↓ Serum [calcium], ↓ PTH, ↑ risk of nephrolithiasis
Catecholamine derivatives that act as agonists for a specific neuronal receptor have been shown to help treat obesity in many severely overweight patients. These derivatives also promote neuroprotection from Parkinson's disease. What is a possible mechanism of action for this process?
A. For people suffering from a food addiction, eating excessive high-fat food triggers the dopamine reward system in the brain (similar to a drug addiction). The catecholamine derivative acts as an agonist for dopamine, thus stimulating the dopamine reward center without the presence of food, and leading to a decrease in overeating.
B. Catecholamine derivatives stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system, thus increasing the activity of the gut. Therefore, despite consuming a highly caloric diet, food is processed more quickly, leading to weight loss.
C. Acetylcholine is responsible for muscular contractions. Since catecholamine derivatives are the precursors to acetylcholine, the presence of these derivatives in the body stimulates the musculoskeletal system, thus burning additional calories and leading to weight loss.
D. Catecholamine derivatives block the release of cortisol, a known contributor to stress-related overeating and weight gain.
In the classic Little Albert experiment, Albert was conditioned to fear white, fluffy animals after they were paired with a sudden loud noise. Which of the following correctly labels the responses and stimuli?
A. Animals (CS), loud noise (UCS), fear of loud noises (UCR), fear of animals (CR)
B. Animals (UCS), loud noise (CS), fear of loud noises (UCR), fear of animals (CR)
C. Animals (CR), loud noise (UCR), fear of loud noises (CS), fear of animals (UCS)
D. Animals (UCR), loud noise (CR), fear of loud noises (UCS), fear of animals (CS)