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the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic grain


the land and its ownership and cultivation


the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants


a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged


a plant cultivated by people


where all land owned by the father is passed to the eldest son

animal domestication

altering the behaviors, size and genetics of animals to benefit humans

nomadic herding

the wandering, but controlled movement of livestock, solely dependent on natural forage- is the most extensive type of land use system

second agricultural revolution

Began in W. Europe in 1600s; intensified agriculture by promoting higher yields per acre/ perfarmer

crop rotation

the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil

truck farm

farms that produce high consumer demand products and either trucks them to market or to processing plants


a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market

Third Agricultural Revolution

began in mid 1950'2; modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock and crops


the use of genetically altered crops and DNA manipulation in order to increase production


the system of agriculture found in developed countries

organic agriculture

crops that are grown without fertilizers and pesticides

debt-for-nature swap

developing countries have some of their foreign in exchange for enacting conservation measures

vegetative planting

the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots

seed agriculture

the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds ; practiced by most farmers

subsistence agriculture

the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family; found in LDC's

commercial agriculture

farmers and ranchers sell all of their output for money and buy their families' food at stores

intensive agriculture

yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming (uses a small amount of land)

extensive agriculture

yields a large amount of output per acre through less intensive farming (uses a large amount of land)

intensive subsistence agriculture

a form of subsistence agriculture where farmers expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum crop yield

extensive subsistence agriculture

a form of subsistnece agriculture that involves large areas of land with minimal labor

plant domestication

altering the behaviors, size and genetics of plants to benefit humans

slash-and- burn

farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris


an area cleared for farming using the slash and burn technique

shifting cultivation

a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift crop activity from one field to another

Neolithic Revolution/First agricultural revolution

time period when society went from hunters and gathers to farming and domestication of animals, 10,000 BCE

pastoral nomadism

a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals (sheep, goats, cows, etc)


seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures


grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing


a Malay (from Malaysia) word used to describe flooded fields where rice grows


an Austronesian word used to describe flooded fields where rice grows

wet rice

the practice pf planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving it to a flooded field to promote growth

double cropping

a type of intensive agriculture where two crops are harvested in the same field a year

hunting and gathering

the capturing and killing of animals and the knowledge and collection of edible plants and food of early humans


Carl O. (the geographer), believed that the hearth of vegetative planting was Southeast Asia, believed vegetative planting came before seed agriculture


a form of commercial agriculture, it is a large farm that specializes in one or two crops

cereal grains

a grass such a oats, wheat, rye or barkey used as food


the ring around a city from which fresh milk can be supplied without spoiling


the husk of the seed


chaff that is allowed to be blown away by the wind


a process of beating the rice heads on the ground to separate the chaff form the seeds

Columbian Exchange

where products were carried both ways across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans during colonization

dispersed rural settlement pattern

areas of extensive agriculture practice whose individual farmhouses lay far apart

nucleated rural settlement pattern

areas of intensive agriculture whose villages are located close together with small surrounding fields

The Enclosure Movement

England 1700s; the fencing or hedging of large blocks of land for farming


the natural process by which material is worn away from the earth's surface; usually by wind, water, or ice

mixed crop and livestock farming

farmers grow crops and raise livestock on the same land with most of the crops fed to the animals rather than people

patriarchal system

a society in which men controlled the holding power in the family, the economy, and the government


a machine that performs reaping, threshing, and cleaning


the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers for human consumption

Johann von Thunen

a german farmer who created a model for rural land use

ridge tillage (intertillage)

a system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote soil conservation


degradation of land because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting

seed drill

a machine that more effectively planed seeds

Green Revolution

began in 1970's; the use of higher yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizers

market gardening

a farm where people grow products that will be sold in a market

adaptive strategies

the idea that humans can adapt their agricultural practices to the needs of the society or the environment

collective farm

farm or group of farms organized as a unit and managed and worker by a group of laborers under state supervision; communist countries


branch of agriculture that deals with the breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals and the selling of their products


a chemical used to kill pests, especially insects


poles and sticks woven tightly together and then covered with mud; used in Africa for housing


the outer covering of the seed

winter wheat

a wheat crop that is planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter

spring wheat

a wheat crop that is planted in the spring and harvested in late summer

staple grains

a principal raw material or commodity grown or produced in a region


a machine that cuts grain standing in a field


the art and science of cultivating, maintaining, and developing forest

location theory

a theory that explains the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices

planned economy

an economic system in which the central government controls and makes decisions regarding the production and distribution of goods and services


the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area


the growth of specialized crops

suitcase farm

when someone owns and operates a farm, but lives somewhere else; usually a crops only farm

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