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76 terms

AP Human Geography Vocab Unit 5

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agriculture
the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic grain
agrarian
the land and its ownership and cultivation
aquaculture
the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants
sustainability
a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged
crop
a plant cultivated by people
primogeniture
where all land owned by the father is passed to the eldest son
animal domestication
altering the behaviors, size and genetics of animals to benefit humans
nomadic herding
the wandering, but controlled movement of livestock, solely dependent on natural forage- is the most extensive type of land use system
second agricultural revolution
Began in W. Europe in 1600s; intensified agriculture by promoting higher yields per acre/ perfarmer
crop rotation
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
truck farm
farms that produce high consumer demand products and either trucks them to market or to processing plants
feedlot
a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market
Third Agricultural Revolution
began in mid 1950'2; modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock and crops
biotechnology
the use of genetically altered crops and DNA manipulation in order to increase production
agribusiness
the system of agriculture found in developed countries
organic agriculture
crops that are grown without fertilizers and pesticides
debt-for-nature swap
developing countries have some of their foreign in exchange for enacting conservation measures
vegetative planting
the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots
seed agriculture
the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds ; practiced by most farmers
subsistence agriculture
the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family; found in LDC's
commercial agriculture
farmers and ranchers sell all of their output for money and buy their families' food at stores
intensive agriculture
yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming (uses a small amount of land)
extensive agriculture
yields a large amount of output per acre through less intensive farming (uses a large amount of land)
intensive subsistence agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture where farmers expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum crop yield
extensive subsistence agriculture
a form of subsistnece agriculture that involves large areas of land with minimal labor
plant domestication
altering the behaviors, size and genetics of plants to benefit humans
slash-and- burn
farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris
swidden
an area cleared for farming using the slash and burn technique
shifting cultivation
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift crop activity from one field to another
Neolithic Revolution/First agricultural revolution
time period when society went from hunters and gathers to farming and domestication of animals, 10,000 BCE
pastoral nomadism
a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals (sheep, goats, cows, etc)
transhumance
seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
pasture
grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
paddy
a Malay (from Malaysia) word used to describe flooded fields where rice grows
sawah
an Austronesian word used to describe flooded fields where rice grows
wet rice
the practice pf planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving it to a flooded field to promote growth
double cropping
a type of intensive agriculture where two crops are harvested in the same field a year
hunting and gathering
the capturing and killing of animals and the knowledge and collection of edible plants and food of early humans
Sauer
Carl O. (the geographer), believed that the hearth of vegetative planting was Southeast Asia, believed vegetative planting came before seed agriculture
plantation
a form of commercial agriculture, it is a large farm that specializes in one or two crops
cereal grains
a grass such a oats, wheat, rye or barkey used as food
milkshed
the ring around a city from which fresh milk can be supplied without spoiling
chaff
the husk of the seed
winnow
chaff that is allowed to be blown away by the wind
thresh
a process of beating the rice heads on the ground to separate the chaff form the seeds
Columbian Exchange
where products were carried both ways across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans during colonization
dispersed rural settlement pattern
areas of extensive agriculture practice whose individual farmhouses lay far apart
nucleated rural settlement pattern
areas of intensive agriculture whose villages are located close together with small surrounding fields
The Enclosure Movement
England 1700s; the fencing or hedging of large blocks of land for farming
erosion
the natural process by which material is worn away from the earth's surface; usually by wind, water, or ice
mixed crop and livestock farming
farmers grow crops and raise livestock on the same land with most of the crops fed to the animals rather than people
patriarchal system
a society in which men controlled the holding power in the family, the economy, and the government
combine
a machine that performs reaping, threshing, and cleaning
horticulture
the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers for human consumption
Johann von Thunen
a german farmer who created a model for rural land use
ridge tillage (intertillage)
a system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote soil conservation
desertification
degradation of land because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
seed drill
a machine that more effectively planed seeds
Green Revolution
began in 1970's; the use of higher yield seeds and expanded use of fertilizers
market gardening
a farm where people grow products that will be sold in a market
adaptive strategies
the idea that humans can adapt their agricultural practices to the needs of the society or the environment
collective farm
farm or group of farms organized as a unit and managed and worker by a group of laborers under state supervision; communist countries
dairying
branch of agriculture that deals with the breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals and the selling of their products
pesticides
a chemical used to kill pests, especially insects
wattle
poles and sticks woven tightly together and then covered with mud; used in Africa for housing
hull
the outer covering of the seed
winter wheat
a wheat crop that is planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter
spring wheat
a wheat crop that is planted in the spring and harvested in late summer
staple grains
a principal raw material or commodity grown or produced in a region
reaper
a machine that cuts grain standing in a field
forestry
the art and science of cultivating, maintaining, and developing forest
location theory
a theory that explains the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices
planned economy
an economic system in which the central government controls and makes decisions regarding the production and distribution of goods and services
ranching
the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
specialization
the growth of specialized crops
suitcase farm
when someone owns and operates a farm, but lives somewhere else; usually a crops only farm