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Parasitology Week 4 Quiz 4
Wilson College Parasitology Dr. Bates TS= Taenia spp. TP= Taenia pisiformis DL= Diphyllobothrium latum HN= Hymenolepsis nana EG= Echinococcus granulosus EM= Echinococcus multiloularis PK= Paragonimus kellicotti NS=Nanophyetus salmincola NN=Neorickettsia nelminthoeca HA=Heterobilharzia americanum
Terms in this set (40)
a large, diverse group of tapeworm species that usually use a carnivore for their final host and a herbivore for their intermediate host.
Taenia spp. Adults
live in the small intestine of their final host. live in the abdominal or chest cavity of the intermediate host.
Taenia spp. Intermediate Hosts
rodent, rabbit, ruminant
final host is the dog.
"bladder worms" because it looks like a miniature fluid filled bladder
dogs that are infected excrete the proglottids in their feces which may contaminate vegetation which is then grazed on by the intermediate host which is the cottontail rabbit. In the rabbit the larval tapeworm penetrates the intestinal wall, migrates to the liver, and there it forms a cysticercus.
When a dog catches and consumes a rabbit with cysticerci, then the lifecycle of this tapeworm can be completed
Examples of Taenia species
Taenia taeniaformis = final host is the cat, intermediate host is various rodents, Pre-Patent period is 5-6 weeks
Taenia hydatigena= final host is the dog, intermediate host is sheep, cattle, various wild ungulates (deer, elk, moose)
Taenia multiceps= "Sheep Gid Tapeworm" well illustrates how devastating tapeworms can be to their intermediate hosts, final host is dog, intermediate host is sheep, the larval tapeworm in the sheep typically invades the cranial cavity of the sheep and forms up into a coenuris. over 6-8 months as the coenuris grows, the sheep develops a variety of neurological signs (blindness, in-coordination, walking in circles, paralysis, eventually death) due to the compression of the brain. Sometimes when the coenuris is still small, affected sheep will display an abnormal gait when they walk, like they are giddy. This neurological condition is called "Sheep Gid".
Anthelmintics to treat Cestodes:
Praziquantel (Droncit) injectible and oral
Fenbendazole (Panacur) only certain tapeworms that belong to the genus Taenia.
"Broad Fish Tapeworm"
Dogs, cats, bears, walrus, seals, mink, humans, any fish eating mammal
Notable because it has TWO intermediate host which it must go through in sequence.
The first intermediate host is a freshwater crustacean called a "copepod" and the second intermediate host is a fish.
Diphyllobothrium latum Lifecycle
With an adult tapeworm living in the small intestine (can be up to 30 feet in length) eggs have to find their way to surface waters in order to develop, where they will be ingested by the copepods. Inside the copepod, the egg hatches and a larval tapeworm develops, a small fish will come along (pike, salmon, minnows) and eat the copepod and the larval tapeworm will develop into a second larval stage and encyst. Then the fish can be eaten by a bigger fish or a frog, the tapeworm will not develop any further but this serves as a paratenic host. or the small fish can be eaten by the final host where the larva will wake up and develop in the final host.
25% of the human population in Finland is infected. Certain ethnic groups also have a higher rate of becoming infected. Local problems can develop especially around communities that dump raw sewage in lakes or rivers. Women around the world have a significantly higher tendency of becoming infected.
Diphyllobothrium latum Prevention
don't eat under cooked or raw freshwater fish.
Final hosts include rats, mice, humans
Adult live in small intestine and they are very small (typical adult is only 4 mm long and 1 mm wide.)
Unique among cestodes in that it can complete its life cycle without an intermediate host.
Capable of direct Fecal/Oral transmission
has Zoonotic potential: Can be a public health concern to lab techs working in infected colonies or children handling infected rodents. In the southern U.S. 1% of the human population is infected. In Moscow, they found that 97% of the human population is infected with this parasite.
adults are very small (6mm in length and consist of 5-6 proglottids) but effects are very large. two tapeworms in this genus.
Live in the small intestine of final host.
final hosts are dog and cat.
intermediate host is a herbivore (usually sheep, sometimes goats, sometimes humans)
In humans, this parasite causes a condition called "hydatid disease." the larval form of this tapeworm forms into a hydatid cyst, can develop in the lungs, liver, brain, bone marrow, and can reach enormous size (up to 4 gallons of fluid and hydatid sand) and may take decades from time of infection for them to take full size. Still a public heath problem in some areas of the world. Follows a pastoral lifecycle
Pastoral Life cycle
the cycle involves exclusively domestic animals
Echinococcus granulosus Life Cycle
Pastoral life cycle.
Eggs after excreted though feces contaminate vegetation which is eaten by sheep, where the eggs hatch and the larva migrate to the liver, lungs or brain, where they form the hydatid cyst. If the intermediate host is slaughtered and the dog eats the offal, they will eat the hydatid cyst and the larva will develop and infect the final host. Humans can come into contact with contaminated vegetation or a dog defecates near a water supply. A big problem in countries like Australia, New Zealand and other countries that have high sheep populations, and in U.S. States like California, Utah, Nevada. In other countries there have been massive eradication programs. In Australia the program had three parts:
-public education, -dogs were given purgative and the feces was collected to identify, -infected dogs were treated.
Icelanders made feeding offal to dogs illegal. Rural working dogs were tested and were put down if infected. Urban dogs were also put down.
similar to Echinococcus granulosus except it follows a sylvatic lifecycle (only wild animals)
China, Canada, Alaska, and the northern part of the U.S.
Foxes, coyotes, wolves, but can also affect domestic dogs (sled dogs)
Intermediate Host: lemmings, voles, rodents
Likes arctic and subarctic regions
Humans:: aberrant host
Fur trappers / handlers, mushers
Alaska: 1 in 1000 people
Locate into lungs and liver
Echinococcus multilocularis Transmission
Echinococcus multilocularis Incubation time
10 years ---> takes cysts a long time to grow and to show symptoms
Echinococcus multilocularis Treatment
surgical ---> need to dissect the cyst out
Can NOT rupture ---> anaphylactic shock
Hyperimmune to parasite
Rupture ---> can lead to new cysts
PAIR procedure: Percutaneous Aspiration, Infusion, and Reasperation
-Cysts just under skin
-Hookup to suction and suck out parasites ---> suck in anthelmintic ---> pull anthelmintic back out
Echinococcus multilocularis Prevention
• Adults: flat and leaf like
• Found in the lungs, liver, intestinal tract, or blood
• Eats and then regurgitates
• Hermaphroditic (both male and female)
• Eggs: brown and heavy
• Fecal sedimentation
• ALWAYS have indirect life-cycle
-Some need 2 intermediate hosts
• Relatively benign on small animals
• "lung fluke"
• Most common
• Final host: dogs, cats, various wild animal species
• Intermediate Host:
o 1st: snail
o 2nd: crayfish
• Adults found in fibrous cysts inside lungs (2 flukes / cyst)
o Connected to bonchi by a tiny tube
o Cough and swallow
o Excreted in feces
Paragonimus kellicotti Lifecycle
• Need to get into water to develop into miracidium
• Miracidium penetrates foot of snail and develops in tissues
• Cercania come out of snail and find crayfish
• Cercaria goes to L3 and becomes encysted
• Penetrate wall of intestines and move into lungs
Paragonimus kellicotti Paratenic Host
Paragonimus kellicotti Pre-Patent Period
Paragonimus kellicotti Clinical Signs
o Respiratory distress
o Chronic coughing
Paragonimus kellicotti Diagnosis
o Radiographs: cysts can be seen on radiographs
o Fecal sedimentation for confirmation
o Takes 1 month until it becomes "visible" and starts causing problems
Paragonimus kellicotti Treatment
Anthelmintic - Flukicidal
Paragonimus kellicotti Prevention
Don't eat crayfish or paratenic hosts
Paragonimus kellicotti Zoonotic Potential
o Sister species does- P. Westermanl
Eating undercooked freshwater crab
Same signs, but humans serve as the final host
• Final Host: dogs, cats, foxes, raccoons, skunks
• Intermediate Hosts
o 1st: snail
o 2nd: salmon
• Live in intestinal tract of final host
• Eggs need to be in surface water to develop
• Adults in intestinal tract aren't pathogenic
• Fluke carries disease
Flukes carry this bacteria that causes disease
Harmless to fluke
Very toxic /pathogenic in dogs
Causes salmon poisoning in dogs
• 90% mortality rate if left untreated
• Signs: high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, facial swelling
• Ingestion of fresh salmon (dies if boiled / frozen)
o Neorickettsia nelminthocea salmon poisoning
o Can recover if catching salmon poisoning
o Immune after treated
Nanophyetus salmincola Zoonotic Potential
o None really
o Fluke can parasitize humans, but no serious disease will result
• Final Host: domestic dogs, raccoons, nutria
• Intermediate Host: snail
• "blood flukes" (live in blood)
• Live in portal and mesenteric veins
Heterobilharzia americanum Lifecycle
• Eggs g oto lumen of small intestine
• Eggs excreted in stool miracidum
• Stalks host
• Cercarra: gests into final host by cutaneous penetration (must be in water)
• Gets into blood flow and stop when they get to the portal and mesenteric veins
• Adult flukes are nondamaging to the final host
• Eggs are the problem
o They clog vessels
o Damage the liver
o Human disease
o Affects 290,000,000 people around the world
o Common in Central Africa and far east
Spread by Heterobilharzia americanum
Heterobilharzia americanum Clinical Signs
o Chronic diarrhea
o Weight loss
o Liver disease
o Schistosomiosis in humans: same, but more damaging to the liver
Heterobilharzia americanum Prevention
o Stay out of marshy areas
o Humans: prevent water mixing with sewage
o Reduce the number of snails
Heterobilharzia americanum Treatment
o Anthelmintic - flukicidal
Praziquantel (both dogs and humans)
Zoonotic Disease of flukes. Cercarial dermatitis.
aquired by swimming in lakes that are frequented by wild ducks.
Humans are an aberrant host.
Can penetrate the skin and cause intense itching.
Small Animal Anthelmintics
-Benzimidazoles (fenbendazole "Panacur")
-Tetrahydropyrimadines (prantel pamoate "Nemex")
-avermectins (ivermectin "Heartguard", selamectin "Revolution"
-milbemycins (milbemycin oxime "Interceptor, and Sentinel", moxidectin "Proheart"
-Heterocyclic Compounds (piperazine "Pipcide", diethylcarbamazine "Filaribits")
-Arsenicals -heartworm adulticide only (thioacetarsamide "Caparsolate", melarsomine "Immiticide"
-isoquinolones (praziquantel "Droncit", epsiprantel "Cestex"
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