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20 terms

Mutations and Genetic Engineering

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nondisjunction
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
deletion
error in meiosis in which a part of DNA from a chromosome is lost
inversion
error on meiosis in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed and reattached to the same chromosome
duplication
error in meiosis in which a part of chromosome is repeated
translocation
error on meiosis in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed and reattached to a different chromosome
germ-cell mutation
mutation that occurs in the gametes, can't affect the organism but can be passed to its offspring
somatic cell mutation
mutation that occurs in the skin cell, can affect the organism but can't be passed to its offspring
lethal mutation
a mutation that causes death
chromosome mutation
a mutation that gives way for nondisjunction, deletion, inversion, duplication, or translocation
gene mutation
a mutation in the sequence of the bases in a gene
changes the structure of the polypeptide that the gene codes for
point mutation
a mutation in which one or just a few nucleotides in a gene are changed
substitution
a mutation that affects a single nucleotide by substituting one nucleotide for another one
frame-shift mutation
a mutation that affects the reading frame because of an addition or subtraction of a nucleotide
human genome project
a research effort to sequence and locate the entire collection of genes in human cells
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
gene cloning
using bacteria to make multiple copies of a gene
plasmid
found in bacterial cells, but are not part of the bacterial cell's necessary DNA
sticky ends
single-stranded ends formed when restriction enzyme cuts DNA
restriction enzymes
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
doner gene
donated genes