CSET Multiple Subjects: Subtest 1a, Domain 3
CSET Multiple Subjects Subtest 1: Reading, Language and Literature Domain 3: Texts
Terms in this set (75)
-Condensed story ranging in length from 2,000-10,000 words, most often with a singular/limited purpose
-Made up of elements such as plot, character, setting, point of view, and theme
-Often based on common dramatic structure
-A fictional narrative in prose of considerable length
-Shorter works are called novellas; even shorter works are called short stories
-Use the same basic literary conventions as do short stories, but they expand them by presenting more complicated plots, adding subplots, creating more nuanced characters, and deepening the development of ideas
-After children have mastered the mechanics of reading, between ages 9 and 12, they are prepared to sustain the more difficult challenge of reading a novel
-Styles include picaresque, epistolary, gothic, romantic, realist, and historical
Dramatic structure/elements of fiction
The introduction of setting, main characters, and conflict.
The event or events that allow the protagonist to make his or her commitment to a course of action as the conflict intensifies; the complication of the plot.
The point of highest interest in a novel, short story, or play in terms of the conflict, the point with the most action, or the turning point for the protagonist.
The events that follow from the protagonist's action in the climax.
The point when the conflict is resolved, remaining loose ends are tied up, and a moral is intimated or stated directly.
-Prose narratives that follow traditional storylines that arise from oral traditions in histories
-As old as language
-Adapt from culture to culture
-Original author is never known
-Arise through the process of recombining traditional elements (motifs) and/or transferring an established plot (tale-type) from one hero, one location, or one era to another
-Telling tales is culturally universal and shares a commonality with primitive and advanced societies alike
-This genre includes fairy tales, legends of all types, animal folk tales, fables, tall tales, and humorous anecdotes
-Type of folk tale
-Narratives that often include creation stories and explain tribal beginnings
-May incorporate supernatural beings or quasi-historical figures (e.g. King Arthur, Lady Godiva)
-Told and retold as if they are based on facts; always set in a specific place and time
-Type of folk tale
-Presented as entirely fictional pieces
-Often begin with a formulaic opening line, such as "Once upon a time..." or "In a certain country there once lived..."
-Recurring plots: supernatural adventures and mishaps of youngest daughters, misadventures of transformed princes, encounters with mermaids, wood fairies, and elves (e.g. Cinderella, Rumpelstiltskin, Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, Hansel and Gretel)
Animal folk tales
-Type of folk tale
-Abound in every culture
-In most cases, the animal characters are clearly anthropomorphic and display human personalities
-Evoke events of a time long past
-Generally concern the adventures and misadventures of gods, giants, heroes, nymphs, satyrs, and larger-than-life villains, all entities that reside outside of ordinary human existence yet are entwined in our collective consciousness
-Set in a time altogether different from our human, historical timeline and often occur at the beginning of creation or in some timeless past age
-Usually related to a culture's religious beliefs and rituals
-Sacred narrative in the sense that it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it, and it contributes to and expresses their system of core thoughts and values
-Encompasses works written in verse, perhaps with a meter and rhyme scheme, and uses written language in a pattern that is sung, chanted, or spoken to emphasize the relationships between words and ideas on the basis of sound as well as meaning.
-This pattern is frequently associated with a rhythm or meter, and may be supplemented by rhyme or alliteration of both.
-A more condensed and refined medium than is prose or everyday speech; it often includes variations in syntax and more frequent and elaborate use of figures of speech, principally metaphor and simile
-All human cultures have their own, although it is used for a wide variety of purposes
-Generally employed in statements and writings that call for heightened intensity of emotion, for dignity of expression, or for subtlety of contemplation
-Valued for combining the aural pleasures of sound with the tempting freshness of ideas, whether these ideas are solemn or comical
-3 major categories: narrative, dramatic, lyric
A folk poem that tells a story, uses simple language, and originally was written to be sung.
A poem having 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter, and a formal arrangement of rhymes.
-10 syllables in each line
-5 pairs of alternating unstressed and stressed syllables
-The rhythm in each line sounds like: ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM
-Used (though not invented) by Shakespeare
-Sometimes Shakespeare added an extra unstressed beat at the end of a line to emphasize a character's sense of contemplation (feminine ending)
---To BE, / or NOT / to BE: / that IS / the QUES- / -tion
Poetry that is not rhymed and does not have a regular metrical pattern but is still more rhythmic than most prose.
The ordinary form of spoken or written language, without metrical structure, as distinguished from poetry or verse
The repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more words or syllables.
A comparison of similar traits between dissimilar things in order to highlight a point of similarity.
"We scored a touchdown on the educational assistance plan."
-Writing that uses figures of speech (as opposed to literal language or that which is actual or specifically denoted), such as metaphors, similes, and irony.
-Uses words to mean something other than their literal meaning.
"The black bat night has flown" is figurative, with the metaphor comparing night and a bat. Literally, night is over.
"Winter's end" implies the end of a person's life.
-Deliberate exaggeration for effect; overstatement.
-Self-conscious, without the intention of being accepted literally.
"The whole world's problems are on my shoulders."
-The images, sensory details, and figurative language of a literary work; words or phrases that appeal to the senses.
-The visual, auditory, or tactile images evoked by the words of a literary work and the images that figurative language evokes.
"The siren in the night played a haunting tone."
-A figure of speech in which intent and actual meaning differ, characteristically praise for blame and blame for praise; the use of words to suggest the opposite of their intended meaning.
-A pattern of words that turns away from direct statement of its own obvious meaning.
-In verbal irony, the discrepancy is between statement and meaning: (parent to teenager) "Oh, your room is really clean."
-Sometimes, irony may simply understate: "Men have died from time to time..."
-The actual definition of the word.
-Not figurative; accurate to the letter; matter of fact or concrete.
"Winter's end" is the end of winter.
-A figure of speech in which something is described as though it were something else.
-A figurative use of language in which a comparison is expressed without the use of a comparative term "as," "like," or "than."
"The black bat night" rather than "Night is like a black bat."
Romeo: "It is the east, and Juliet is the sun." Compares her window to the east and Juliet to the sun.
A figurative use of language that endows nonhumans (ideas, inanimate objects, animals, abstractions) with human characteristics.
"The angry sea crashed against the wall."
-A directly expressed comparison; a figure of speech comparing two objects usually with "like," "as," or "than."
-It is easier to recognize than a metaphor because the comparison is explicit.
"My love is like a fever."
"My love is deeper than a well."
"My love is as dead as a doornail."
-Usually concrete objects or images that represent abstract ideas; something that is simultaneously itself and a sign of something else.
For example, winter, darkness, and cold are real things, but in literature they are also likely to be used as symbols of death.
The eagle is often used as a symbol of freedom.
-What is the dramatic situation?
-What is the structure of the poem?
-What is the theme of the poem?
-Is the meaning clear?
-What is the tone of the poem?
-What are the important images and figures of speech?
Analyzing Poetry: What is the dramatic situation?
-WHO is the speaker? Or who are the speakers? Male or female?
-WHERE is s/he?
-WHEN does this poem take place?
-WHAT are the circumstances?
Analyzing Poetry: What is the structure of the poem?
-The parts/structural divisions of the poem and how they are related to each other
-Repetitions (i.e. parallel syntax or the use of a simile in each sentence)
-The logic of the poem. Does it ask questions and then answer them? Develop an argument? Use a series of analogies to prove a point?
Analyzing Poetry: What is the theme of the poem?
-Be able to see the point of the poem.
-Define what the poem says and why.
i.e. A love poem usually praises the loved one in the hope that the speaker's love will be returned.
Analyzing Poetry: Is the meaning clear?
-Understand the meaning of all the words in the poem, especially words you think you know but which don't seem to fit in the context of the poem.
-Understand the grammar of the poem.
-Beware of skewed word order (i.e. a direct object before the subject and verb: "His sounding lyre the poet struck" means the poet played his harp, not that he was hit by a musical instrument.)
Analyzing Poetry: What is the tone of the poem?
-Can mean the mood or atmosphere of a work or a manner of speaking, but its most common use as a term of literary analysis is to denote the inferred attitude of an author
-Author's attitude may be different from that of the speaker (usually the case in ironic works)
Analyzing Poetry: What are the important images and figures of speech?
-Important literal sensory objects and images?
-The similes and metaphors of the poem. In each, exactly what is being compared to what?
-A pattern in the images, such as a series of comparisons
Also be able to discriminate between the figurative ("I love a rose"—my love is like a rose, beautiful, sweet, fragile) and the literal ("I love a rose"—roses are my favorite flower).
Common Themes in Literature
-One recurring truth of mythology is that whatever happens among the gods and other mythical beings is in some way a reflection of human events on earth.
-Many themes and motifs recur in the myths of various cultures and ages.
-A common theme in many cultures explains the creation of the world; these range from a god fashioning the earth from abstract chaos to a specific animal creating it from a handful of mud.
-Other myths of cyclical destruction and creation are paralleled by myths of seasonal death and rebirth.
-Another common theme is the idea of a long-lost golden age of seeming perfection from which humanity has degenerated (i.e. The Garden of Eden)
-The motif of a gigantic flood is extremely widespread; it is one element of a group of myths that concern the destruction and re-creation of the world or a particular society.
-Other recurring myths explain the origin of fire or it's retrieval from some being that refuses to share it, the expectation of transcendent changes in the millennium to come, or the complex relationships between the living and the dead.
A story in which people, things, and events have another meaning.
(Orwell's Animal Farm)
A reference in a work of literature to something outside the work, especially to a well-known historical or literary event, person, or work.
(In Hamlet, when Horatio says, "ere the mightiest Julius fell," the allusion is to the death of Julius Caesar.)
A speaker's authors, or character's disposition toward or opinion of a subject.
(Hamlet's attitude toward Gertrude is a mixture of affection and revulsion, changing from one to the other within a single scene.)
An author's account of his or her own life.
An accurate history of a single person.
The implications of a word or phrase, as opposed to its exact meaning (denotation).
A device of style or subject matter so often used that it becomes a recognized means of expression.
(A lover observing the literary love conventions cannot eat or sleep and grows pale and lean.)
The dictionary meaning of a word, as opposed to connotation.
Word choice; any word/detail that is important to the meaning and effect of the writing.
A figure of speech using indirection to avoid offensive bluntness, such as deceased for dead or remains for corpse.
-A technique in which the narrative moves to a time prior to that of the main story
-Can make a story more interesting by giving it depth
-A technique that uses clues to suggest events that have not yet occurred
-Often used to create suspense and thus make a story more interesting
-A literary form, such as an essay, novel, of poem.
-Within genres like the poem, there are also more specific genres based upon content (love poem, nature poem) or form (sonnet, ode).
-The special language of a profession or group.
-The term usually has pejorative associations, with the implication that it is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders.
Songlike; characterized by emotion, subjectivity, and imagination.
-The methods involved in telling a story; the procedures used by a writer of stories or accounts.
-A general term that asks you to discuss the procedures used in the telling of a story.
-Examples of techniques used are point of view, manipulation of time, dialogue, or interior monologue.
Omniscient point of view
The vantage point of a story in which the narrator can know, see, and report whatever he or she chooses. The narrator is free to describe the thoughts of any of the characters, to skip about in time or place, or to speak directly to the reader.
A combination of opposites; the union of contradictory terms.
(Romeo's line "feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health" contains four examples of the device.)
An allegorical story designed to suggest a principle, illustrate a moral, or answer a question.
A statement that seems to be self-contradicting but, in fact, is true.
(The figure in a Donne sonnet that concludes "I shall never be chaste except you ravish me" is a good example of the device.)
A composition that imitates the style of another composition, normally for comic effect.
The interrelated actions of a play or a novel that move to a climax and a final resolution.
Point of view
-Any of several possible vantage points from which a story is told.
-May be omniscient, limited to that of a single character, or limited to that of several characters, as well as other possibilities.
-The teller may use the first person and/or the third person.
-One of the main characters of a literary work
-Usually in conflict with the antagonist (villain)
A question asked for effect, not in expectation of a reply. No reply is expected because the question presupposes only one possible answer.
-The devices used in effective or persuasive language.
-Most common examples include contrast, repetitions, paradox, understatement, sarcasm, and rhetorical question.
-Writing that seeks to arouse a reader's disapproval of an object by ridicule.
-Usually comedy that exposes errors with an eye to correcting vice and folly.
(Examples can be found in the novels of Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, and Joseph Heller.)
-The background to a story; the physical location of a story, play, or novel.
-The setting of a narrative will normally involve both time and place.
-A speech in which a character who is alone speaks his or her thoughts aloud (Hamlet's "To be, or not to be" and "O! What a rogue and peasant slave am I")
-A monologue also has a single speaker, but the monologuist speaks to others who do not interrupt.
-The management of language for a specific effect.
-In a poem, the planned pacing of elements to acheive an effect.
Example: the rhetorical strategy of most love poems is deployed to convince the loved one to return the speaker's love. By appealing to the loved one's sympathy ("If you don't return my love, my heart will break."), or by flattery ("How could I not love someone as beautiful as you?"), or by threat ("When you're old, you'll be sorry you refused me."), the lover attempts to persuade the loved one to love in return.
-The arrangement of materials within a work; the relationship of the parts of a work to the whole; the logical divisions of a work.
-The most common principles are series (A, B, C, D, E), contrast (A vs. B, C vs. D, E vs. A) and repetition (AA, BB, AB).
-The most common units are play (scene, act), novel (chapter), and poem (line, stanza).
-The mode of expression in a language; the characteristic manner of expression of an author.
-Elements/techniques include diction, syntax, figurative language, imagery, selection of detail, sound effects, and tone.
-A form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them.
-Begins with a major premise ("All tragedies end unhappily") followed by a minor premise ("Hamlet is a tragedy") and a conclusion ("Therefore, Hamlet ends unhappily.")
The main thought expressed by a work.
The theme, meaning, or position that a writer undertakes to prove or support.
-The manner in which an author expresses his or her attitude; the intonation of the voice that expresses meaning.
-Described by adjectives
-May change from chapter to chapter or even line to line
-May be the result of allusion, diction, figurative language, imagery, irony, symbol, syntax, or style.
A play with a serious content and an unhappy ending.
(Shakespeare's Hamlet, Miller's Death of a Salesman.)