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AP Environmental Science Chapter 3
Ecosystems and Energy
Terms in this set (58)
a 19th century scientist who developed the concept of ecology
"eco" is Greek for "house"
the study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their abiotic environment
a group of organisms of the same species that live together in the same area at the same time
group of similar organisms whose members freely interbreed with one another in the wild to produce fertile offspring
a natural association that consists of all the populations of different species that live and interact together within an area at the same time
a community and its physical environment
levels of biological organization
community and ecosystem
a subdiscipline of ecology that studies ecological processes that operate over large areas
a spatially heterogenous region that includes several interacting ecosystems
the layer of earth containing all living organisms
Earth's four realms
atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere
the gaseous envelope surrounding Earth
Earth's supply of water - liquid and frozen, fresh and salty
the soil and rock of Earth's crust
the capacity or ability to do work
stored in bonds of molecules (i.e. food)
radio waves, visible light, X rays. (transmitted as electromagnetic waves)
radiant energy from the sun - ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation
heat energy that flows from an object with a higher temperature (the heat source) to an object with a lower temperature (the heat sink)
energy in the movement of matter
energy found in atomic nuclei
energy that flows as charged particles
the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1*C
the energy of motion
the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by extension, of the relationships between all forms of energy.
refer to an object being studied, surroundings
self contained and isolated system
exhibits an exchange of energy with its surroundings
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, although it can change from one form to another
second law of thermodynamics
when energy is converted from one form to another, some of it is degraded into heat, a less usable form that disperses into the environment
a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.
the biological process in which light energy from the sun is captured and transformed into the chemical energy of carbohydrate (sugar) molecules
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + radiant energy -> C6H12O6 + 6 CO2
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O -> 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + energy
an opening in the sea floor out of which heated mineral-rich water flows.
The synthesis of organic compounds by certain bacteria, especially in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, using energy obtained from the chemical oxidation of simple inorganic compounds.
the passage of energy in a one-way direction through an ecosystem
an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.
consumer. an organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances.
eat primary consumers
eat secondary consumers
are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
an organism that feeds on or derives nourishment from decaying organic matter.
an organism's position in a food chain, which is determined by its feeding relationships
a representation of the interlocking food chains that connect all organisms in an ecosystem
graphically represent the relative energy values of each trophic level
gross primary productivity (GPP)
the total amount of photosynthetic energy that plants capture and assimilate in a given period
net primary productivity (NPP)
productivity after respitration losses are subtracted. That is, NPP is the amount of biomass found in excess of that broken down by a plant's cellular respiration. NPP represents the rate at which this organic matter is actually incorporated into plant tissues for growth
atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere
What realms are part of the abiosphere?
pyramid of numbers
shows the number of organisms at each trophic level in a given ecosystem, with the greater numbers illustrated by a larger area for that section of the pyramid
pyramid of biomass
illustrates the total biomass at each successive trophic level
pyramid of energy
illustrates the energy content, often expressed as kilocalories per square meter per year, of the biomass at each trophic level.
swamps and marshes, rainforests
What ecosystems have the highest npp (net primary productivity)?
What is the equation for net primary productivity?
npp = gpp - plant cellular respiration
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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