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Birth and Evolution of the Solar System (2/18/2020)
Terms in this set (38)
How can we compare the birth of the solar system to a 2-D picture of bugs? What is it hard to distinguish?
-Swarm of bugs = galaxy
-Only have a 2-D picture, how to build 3-D picture
-Distinguish close and far
What happens when we look past the stars? What do we see?
-What is the distance between the milky way and andromeda galaxy?
-How far across is the andromeda galaxy?
-clouds of gas that separate the galaxies (dots are all "bugs on the windshield" in view of other galaxies)
-2.5 million light years
-0.2 million lightyears
What is a region of star formation? What is the red color?
A nebula (ex. Eagle Nebula). Red color is hydrogen gas emissions at a wavelength of 660
What can we see in the Eagle Nebula? What blocks out the light behind?
-We can see elements form absorption spectrums from light behind
-Dust clouds block out light behind
What are the parts of the Eagle Nebula? Label them.
Jet, starlight reflected from disk, silhouette of disk, young star hidden by disk
What is a forming star called? Where is this located?
-What is this disk made of?
-What conditions are believed to exist when stars form?
A protostar. The glowing light inside the disk
-Large clouds of dusk and gas
-Large clouds of gas and dust
the idea that a collapsing spherical cloud has been around for a 200 years based on properties of the Solar System (Kant and Laplace)
-Cloud collapses, transforms to a disk, structures
What is an ecliptic? How do all the planets orbit?
The apparent path of the Sun due to the Earth's orbit
-All the planets orbit the same way around the sun
How is this disk structure that forms stars familiar?
It is shaped like an ecliptic, everything is in the 2-D plane
-Spun around and formed a flat disk
How does the disk form in the Nebular hypothesis?
1. There is a large sphere of slowly rotating gas and dust, gravity pulls from all directions towards the center of mass on the rotation axis
2. Cloud of gas and dust have SOME rotation, which slows and becomes perpendicular as the cloud begins to collapse
3. Dominant orientation determines the plane of the disk
4. Accretion disk forms around the protostar
a flat, rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding a condensed mass, such as a young stellar object, a forming planet, or a collapsed star in a binary pair
Disk Formation Physics
1. What does gravity do?
2. What happens to the rotation?
-What is this a battle of?
1. Gravity pulls from all directions toward center of mass
2. Rotation slows collapse perpendicular to axis of rotation
-Gravity and rotation
Conservations of Angular Momentum
-What does angular momentum want to do? What is an example of this working?
-What is the equation made up of?
-What can L not do? What does this mean?
L = m x v x r
-Wants to resist change, why bike doesn't tip
-mass around x velocity x radius at the center
-L cannot change without outside forces
ex. mass spread out at higher radius = large, radius is lower, velocity is higher
How does angular velocity change if radius increases?Recall L = m x v x r
•C) stays the same
Does our sun spin fast?
-Why is this?
-What does this tell us about?
-If all angular momentum of a cloud were conserved, how fast would the sun spin?
-Huge initial radius of cloud, even a small initial angular rotation has enormous angular momentum
-Tells us all material didn't fall into the cloud
-If all angular momentum of a cloud were conserved, the Sun would spin around every 0.6 seconds (actual rotation is 30 days)
Where does the material pile up? Where does it come from ? How does this affect the accretion disk?
-Piles up with nowhere to exist. Material comes from all directions.
-Star forms a thinner and thinner accretion disk
What has the most angular momentum?
-Our sun rotates "slowly" because....
-The accretion disk that forms around the protostar
-Angular momentum from collapsing cloud of dust and gas doesn't make beyond accretion disk to protostellar (very young) sun
All planets do what?
Orbit in a plane in the same direction
Which observation gives credence to the Nebular Hypothesis
•A) Planets exist
•B) All objects orbit the sun in the same direction
•C) Space is mostly empty
B) All objects orbit the sun in the same direction
What do we notice when we look at old meteorites?
They are composed of little particles stuck together
From Dust, to Pebbles, to Rocks, to Planetesimals
-What do electrostatic forces do?
-What do gas atoms do?
-What are planetesimals?
-Pull smallest particles together
-Gas atoms bump particles
-small -> bigger
-Bigger -> bigger
-Planetesimals have gravity, and they form larger objects
What can planetesimals do?
Gravitationally accrete material
occurs from the collision and coagulation of solid particles into gradually larger bodies until a massive planetary embryo is formed
What is cratering? What planet is an example of this process?
A record of planetesimal collisions. Mercury, moon, we see this in the asteroid belt and on earth
What is the largest object in the asteroid belt?
Ceres (between Mars and Jupiter)
What do scientists do with asteroids?
Track how close they are to the earth to avoid disaster
Why do we use computer simulations?
To compare theories
What are the two theories?
Core accretion model (rocks from 1st, rocky core, pull in gas and dust) and gas collapse model
Describe the Accretion model
Describe the gas collapse model
What can you tell about the composition of solids?
-What does this mean?
-Composition of solids depends on the distance from the sun
-Hotter closer to the sun
Inverse Square Law for Radiation
-Doubling the distance does what to the brightness of a star?
-Tripling the distance does what?
-decreases brightness to . of what it was.
-decrease the brightness to 1/9 of what it was.
Composition of solids does what?
-Where do rocks exist?
-What happens to temperature as distance increases?
-Where is water?
-Where is methane ice? Where is ammonia ice?
-Rocks exist anywhere in the solar system
-Hotter closer to the sun
-Water will vaporize if too close
-Methane and ammonia = wider berth from the star
What concept predicts that icy planetesimals only exist far from the sun?
•A) occams razor
•B) inverse square law
•C) newtons laws
•D) Keplers laws
•B) inverse square law
Composition of solids depends on what? What are examples?
Depends on distance from sun.
What are comets like away from the sun? Close to the sun?
Pluto close to the sun = comets
-When they get comet trails (materials behind them)
trails point directly away from the sun
-Most objects do what with water and methane close to the sun?
-Jupiter and out planet are composed of what?
-Most objects don't hold onto water/methane close to the sun
-Jupiter and out = gas, further out is ice (methane/ammonia)
Composition of gas depends on what?
-What competes with gas temperature? Examples?
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