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227 terms

Mundy Test #3

lee university-
gender stratification
unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on sex
social characteristics that distinguish males from females
Standards of beauty
vary from culture to culture based on what physical characteristics each culture finds desirable
Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?
it is a master status cutting across all aspects of life
biological characteristics
primary sex characteristic
uterus (in women)
gender differences
based on social factors
socialization and social control
According to Cynthia Fuchs Epstein's theory, distinctions between the type of work performed by men and women is based on:
chromosome configuration male; female
nature argument
biology leads to different behaviors based on sex, socialization and social institutions merely reflect (if not exaggerate) inborn tendencies.
nurture argument
social factors create gender differences in behavior
Alice Rossi
proposed the concept that women are better prepared biologically for "mothering" than men
Alice Rossi
suggested that nature provides biological predispositions that are overlaid with culture.
According to most research, men who have higher levels of testosterone:
are more aggressive
In addition to high testeroterone levels, male aggression is predicted by:
the social class of the male
In 1963, 7 month old twin boys underwent routine circumcision. One boy was seriously injured and the parents decided to raise him as a girl. What was the outcome?
Brenda rejected dolls, favored guns, and eventually returned to being a male
Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?
women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics
Vietnam Veterans Study
concluded that human behavior is a mix of nature vs. nurture, social class plays a significant role
sex typing of work
study done by George Murdock
sex typing of work
studies suggest that activities considered "female" in one society could be considered "male" in another society
In George Murdock's study of sex typing and work, what was the one occupation that was always a man's job?
metal working
gender and prestige of work
male activities always have greater prestige
male prestige of work (example)
delivering babies, doctors (male) have greater prestige than midwives (female)
honor killing
the execution of a female by a male relative for "disgracing the family"
doctoral degree with greatest percentage of men
doctoral degree with greatest percentage of women
proposed affirmative action for men
Judith Kleinfeld
affirmative action for men
study by judith kleinfeld aimed to shed light on why boys are less likely than girls to seek postsecondary education.
What country in the world has the highest illiteracy rate for females and males, with 92% of females and 76% of males unable to read.
The year that women first voted in national elections in the United States:
According to Frederick Engels, what was responsible for the development of partriarchy?
the development of private property
What group is most associated with the phrase "biology is not destiny"?
The first wave of the women's movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the radical branch?
reforming all institutions of society
What act did members of the National Women's Party engage in to gain the right to vote in 1917?
they picketed the White House
Which wave of the women's movement focused on the problems of women in the Least Industrialzied Societies?
The majority of students graduating with a degree in elementary education are women. Research has shown that this sex-typing of majors is primarily due to ____ .
gender socialization
What sport did Foley and Eder study to examine the devaluation of females as a method of motivating men?
To what do sociologists compare the conversations between a man and a woman?
an employer and an employee
Many students, when they graduate from college, will be able to earn an extra $2300 a month between the ages of 25 and 65. How does the student accomplish this "bonus"?
be born a male
Joan and Jim were both hired to do the same work at a college in Kentucky, although Jim's title is slightly different than Joan's. Yet Jim received a higher starting salary than Joan. What do sociologists call this form of employment discrimination?
the testosterone bonus
Based on the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?
college graduates
According to sociologist Christin Williams, men who are employed in positions traditionally considered "women's occupations," encounter:
the glass escalator which allows faster promotion
Of the nation's top 500 corporations, referred to as the "Fortune 500," how many were headed by women in 2005?
Which of the following best describes how feminists view sexual harrassment?
it is based by the structural problems imbedded in society
What term describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation?
the glass ceiling
Sexual harrassment was not recognized as a social problem until the:
physical attributes
Which statement best summarizes the relationship between killers and their victims:
men outnumber women as both victims and killers
What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?
a race
mass killings because of race or ethnicity
The massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s, the extermination of the Jews in Nazi Germany, and the slaughter of the Tutsis in Rwanda are all examples of ________.
As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?
one race is superior to another; pure races exist
How did the 2000 U.S. Census instruct Americans to classify themselves in relation to race?
Respondents can choose one or more races that they consider themselves to be.
cultural attirbutes
While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.
Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?
Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.
What term did Louis Wirth use to define groups of people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?
minority group
term given to groups with the most power, greatest privilege, and highest social status
dominant groups
What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?
positive prejudice
activities done to maintain, discover, or enhance one's racial or ethnic identity
ethnic work
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1993
The belief held by many African Americans that lighter skinned African American women are more attractive than those with darker skin is referred to as ________.
the internalization of the norms of the dominant group
Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.
attitudes; actions
Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe ________.
prejudice and discrimination
What is the Implicit Association Test?
It is a visual perception test that links race to desirable and undesirable words.
Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.
institutional discrimination
Who developed the theory of prejudice that addressed frustration levels and scapegoats?
Theodor Adorno
According to Adorno, a(n) ________ is a person who is prejudiced and ranks high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors.
authoritarian personality
an individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else's troubles
The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed is called ________.
the reserve labor force
theory or perspective states that "business owners keep their workers insecure so they don't unite and demand higher wages"
conflict theory on the reserve labor force
________ refers to seeing certain features of a situation while ignoring others, and the use of labels to group individual members as if they were all alike.
Selective perception
When an executioner wears a hood he is separating his true identity (the man without a hood) from the one carrying out the execution. Such behavior is part of an effort to separate one's feelings from one's acts, called ________.
Slavery and apartheid are both examples of the ways in which a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?
internal colonialism
When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.
forced assimilation
Switzerland is made up of four separate ethnic groups that have kept their own languages but are peacefully united politically and economically. This pattern of intergroup relations is an example of ________.
What is another name for multiculturalism?
What is the largest minority group in the United States today?
Latino American
The 1896 Supreme Court ruling that approved "separate but equal" accommodations for blacks and whites as a reasonable use of state power was ________.
Plessy v. Ferguson
What does it mean when sociologists say that age is "socially constructed"?
Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.
Of the following countries, in which one do the citizens have the longest life expectancy?
Of the following groups of Americans, which one has the lowest median age?
What term refers to the maximum length of life that is possible for a species?
life span
The term "________" refers to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age, and was coined by the physician ________.
ageism; Robert Butler
Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age (old or young)
How do theorists view the relationship between industrialization and the elderly in the United States?
The social value of the elderly decreased with industrialization.
Which theory, developed by Swedish sociologist Lars Tornstam, describes the transformation of the elderly to feel more at one with the universe and more understanding in their perception of social issues?
Because the first of the baby boom generation has now turned 60, we are likely to see a shift to more positive images of the elderly. What is the major reason for this?
Their vast numbers translate into economic clout and political power.
With respect to contemporary China, which of the following statements best reflects its policy toward the elderly?
Children are obligated by tradition,and sometimes contract, to care for aging parents.
What sociological perspective stresses that age has no inherent meaning and that each culture shapes the way that its citizens perceive the elderly?
symbolic interactionism
Dr. Loomis' introductory sociology class is composed entirely of first-year students who are 18 years old. Together, these 55 students, and all other 18-year-olds, comprise a(n) ________.
age cohort
Which theory posits the notion that retirement is a mutually beneficial agreement between two parts of society, the old and the young?
disengagement theory
What did the research by anthropologist Dorothy Jerrome show regarding the ways in which the elderly actually retire?
They exchange one set of roles for another set of roles.
Which sociological perspective is most closely aligned with the disengagement, activity, and continuity theories of aging?
physician who started a movement in 1930 to levy a 2 percent national sales tax to support the elderly, eventually lost to Roosevelt's plan
Francis Townsend
The number of workers required to support one dependent member of society is called the ________.
dependency ratio
Who proposed the Social Security plan that was finally adopted by Congress in 1934?
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Which sociological perspective is most closely aligned with the explanation that Social Security benefits came about as the result of a struggle between competing interest groups?
the conflict perspective
What is the politically powerful group with 39 million members that monitors federal and state legislation and mobilizes its elderly members to act on issues affecting their welfare?
American Association of Retired Persons
Which of the following factors most transformed the process of dying into an event to be managed by professionals?
________ was the psychologist who developed a five-stage process describing the ways in which people cope during the living-dying interval.
Elisabeth Kübler-Ross
Francis has recently been told that he has a terminal disease and can expect to live for only a short time. He has made a will, paid all his bills, and given instructions to his children. According to Kübler-Ross, Francis is in the stage of ________.
LuAnn has a terminal disease and is close to death. Every other day, a person comes to her home and monitors her health signs, talks with her, and answers any questions the family has about LuAnn. The services provided LuAnn are referred to as ________.
A person who is dying in the sterile environment of a hospital, surrounded by medical professionals and beeping machines, is experiencing ________.
institutional death
Continuity theory and disengagement theory are aligned with the functionalist perspective.
Hunting and gathering societies that generate very little surplus food and material property are described by sociologists as ________ economies.
What condition had to exist before members of a society could create a permanent or semi-permanent place to live?
a surplus of food that could be distributed and exchanged
What term describes a system that emphasizes hard work, savings, and a concern for salvation?
Protestant ethic
The "global village" refers to ________.
the linking of the world's nations by fast communications, trade, and transportation
The eagerness to show wealth by the purchase and visible ownership of goods is called ________.
conspicuous consumption
The plow was to the agricultural society as the ________ was to the industrial society.
steam engine
What was the earliest medium of exchange?
barter system
At the marketplace, Blossom brings pastries that she bakes to exchange for clothing. David brings chickens to trade for Blossom's pastries. What medium of exchange does this illustrate?
What is the determining factor for inflation to occur? font color = blue>
Currency is issued at a higher rate than the growth of the Gross Domestic Product.
In theory, industries can manufacture and sell poisons, bombs, and weapons of any type as long as there are consumers to buy them and they operate within a government that permits ________.
laissez-faire capitalism
In the United States, government interventions that restrict a person's ability to immediately produce and sell a product that he or she has discovered or invented are referred to as ________.
market restraints
What is another name for "welfare capitalism"?
state capitalism
Which of the following social or economic arrangements is described as being the "capitalist's dream"?
a monopoly
In socialism, who or what determines what will be produced and what it will cost?
the central committee that decides what the country needs
How would Karl Marx define "profit"?
the excess value of a product that is withheld from workers
What is the primary criticism leveled against capitalism?
It leads to severe social inequalities.
What theory is based on the idea that the two economic systems - capitalism and socialism - will eventually adopt features of one another until there is a hybrid economic system in all societies?
convergence theory
What has been the most significant economic change in the last 100 years, one that may even rival the Industrial Revolution in its impact on people's lives?
the global integration of giant corporations
What term did Durkheim use to refer to the sense of unity that comes from doing similar activities and directly sharing most aspects of life?
mechanical solidarity
What term did Durkheim use to refer to the global division of labor that has led to specific tasks performed by members of society and a lessening of social cohesion?
organic solidarity
The groups that head the country's top corporations and have access to high-level politicians, which they use to promote legislation favorable to big business, are known as ________.
inner circles
Frank Buckman sits on the board of directors for seven oil companies and three corporations that manufacture oil rigs and oil-producing machinery. Several of his closest business associates belong to the same boards. Such a scenario is an example of a(n) ________.
interlocking directorate
Theorists who believe that corporations use profit as their moral guide, with no concern for how opening and closing factories affects workers, are most aligned with which sociological perspective?
the conflict perspective
Sociologists use the term "________" to refer to the fundamental changes in society that occur as a result of vast numbers of women entering the workforce.
quiet revolution
Economic activities, illegal or legal, that people do not report to the government are sometimes referred to as the ________ economy.
The society with the most leisure time spread rather consistently throughout the year is the ________ society.
hunting and gathering
Why is every group considered political in some sense?
there is a power struggle of some sort in every group
The term micropolitics is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
symbolic interaction
The exercise of power over large groups by governments is called:
For a government to be stable, what quality must exist?
the source of the power must be perceived as legitimate
Which sociologist is credited with describing violence as "the ultimate foundation of any political order"?
Peter Berger
What is armed resistance with the intention of overthrowing a government called?
a revolution
What sociologist developed the three ideal types of authority?
Max Weber
rule by written law
rational-legal authority
What is the literal translation of the word charismatic , based on its Greek origin?
it means a gift freely and graciously given
Why was the American Revolution classified as a "revolution?"
it was armed resistance designed to overthrow the British colonial government
Which United States president does Henslin cite as an example of a leader who combined charismatic and rational-legal authority?
John F. Kennedy
What did Joan of Arc, Adolph Hitler, and Jesus Christ have in common?
they were all charisimatic leaders
What was Max Weber's term for a composite of characteristics found in many real life examples?
ideal types
Leaders sometimes have a combination of ideal types of authority. What two types of authoritydid the Ayatollah Khomeini most represent?
charismatic and traditional authority
What is a system of government in which decision making is vested in a small group of people?
an oligarchy
Why was it possible for a peaceful transfer of power to take place in South Africa when President deKlerk (a powerful white South African) was replaced by Nelson Mandela (a black South African)?
the nation followed the procedures based on rational legal authority
What is the specific political gift that Americans gave the world, based on a person's birth and residence? ____ democracy.
the concept of citizenship
Which of the following power styles is the best example of totalitarianism?____
Nazi Germany and the Gestapo
Ben lives in a small Virginia town where he and other residents attend monthly town meetings. At these meetings they publicly vote on issues concerning the town. These monthly meetings are an example of ____ democracy.
The American stateman who said, "a little rebellion now and then is a good thing...the tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants," was:
Thomas Jefferson
Max Weber used the term ____ to refer to the transition from a charismatic leader to either a rational-legal authority or traditional authority.
routinization of charisma
During the Middle Ages, what physical structure(s) dominated the landscape of the city-state?
a castle and the cathedral
In the United States, which political party is most associated with the working class?
What political party was the party of Abraham Lincoln?
The present two party system dominating political activity in the United States has been in existence since . . .
the Civil War
Richard is a university graduate and an aspiring businessman. He has recently started his own internet company. What is his probable political affiliation?
the Republican party
Another term for "pre-elections" in which voters decide which candidates will represent their political parties is:
What is the key to determining if someone will vote in an election?
the degree to which they believe they have a stake in the political system
Phong Lhu is a small business owner and a recently naturalized citizen of the United States. Since there are very few Vietnamese serving in public office, Phong Lhu will most likely vote in accord with ____ .
his interests as a member of an ethnic group
Organizations that solicit money from many donors and then use the funds to influence legislation are referred to as:
political action committees (PAC)
A political gender gap is occurring, with men more likely to vote ____ and women more likely to vote ____.
Republican; Democratic
What is the profile of the average American voter?
older, non-Hispanic white, college educated, earning more than $50,000
when a dominant group expels a minority group
direct transfer
when a dominant group makes life miserable for the minority until they voluntarily leave
indirect transfer
the forced movement of a minority group
population transfer
process of absorbing mainstream culture, either "forced" or "permisable"
the combination of prejudice and disrimination
laws that made segregation happen in the US specifically aimed at african americans
jim crow laws
proposed that significance of race is declining and social class is more central for african americans
william julius wilson
when a vietnam veteran is prejudice or discriminates against any asian
spillover bigotry
largest group of americans with european descent
highest life expectancy
japan (82)
U.S. life expectancy rank
4th (78)
lowest life expectancy
zimbabwe (40)
U.S. median age
race or ethnicity in the U.S. with the lowest median age
latino (27.6)
when was old age considered to be an accomplishment because so few people made it
colonial times
with no _______ the _______ continued to work at jobs that changed very little
pensions; elderly
why do people in modern china have to resort to contracts stating that they will take care of their elderly parents
one child per married couple law, the responsibility falls on fewer children's shoulders
theory that states: culture shapes how we view the elderly, we perceive ourselves and others according to the symbols of our culture
symbolic interactionist
elderly have gone from being an asset (1700's) to a liability (2000's)
symbolic interactionist perspective
pensions make elderly retire earlier and younger people can have their jobs
functionalist perspective
young and old are opponents in a struggle that threatens to throw society into turmoil
conflict perspective
20,000 members, they encourage people of all ages to work for the benefit of the old and the young
Gray Panthers
media portrayal of the elderly
people tend to die sooner in these understaffed dehumanizing facilities
nursing homes
period between discovering you are going to die soon and death
living-dying interval
five-stages coping with the living-dying interval
denial, anger, negotiation, depression, acceptance
people born at roughly the same time who pass through life's course together
age cohort
era that consisted of hunting and gathering societies
era that machines powered by fuels increase production, stimulated international trade, and brought greater social inequalities
service sector so large that most people work in it, vast surplus of goods, even more extensive trade among nations, greater variety and quality of goods available, an information explosion, and a "global village"
the means by which people place a value on goods and services in order to make an exchange
mediums of exchange
direct exchange of one item for another
any item (sea shells, gold) that serves as a medium for of exchange
a receipt stating that a certain amount of goods is on deposit in a bank or warehouse
deposit receipt
paper money
the goods that are held in reserve to back up or provide value for currency
stored value
paper money backed by gold
gold standard
currency issued by a government that is not backed by stored value
flat money
the amount of goods or services produced by a nation
Gross Domestic Product
an increase in price
an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition
"hands off" or "pure", government doesn't interfere in the market
laissez-faire capitalism
means of production is privately owned but the state regulates many economic activities for the welfare of the population
welfare or state capitalism
the control of an entire industry by a single company
an economic system characterized by the public ownership of the means of production, central planning, and distribution of goods
the law of supply and demand
market forces
a mix of private and state ownership. state controls industries thought to be essential for the public welfare
democratic socialism
economic system criticized for not respecting individual rights
economic system criticized for increasing social inequalities
the domination of an economic system by giant corporations
corporate capitalism
"undocumented workers", they work for employers that either ignore their fake social security card or pay them in cash
los sin documentos
the exercise of power in everyday life, such as deciding who is going to do the housework or use the remote
authority based on an individuals outstanding traits, which attract followers
charismatic authority
the concept that birth (and residents or naturalization) imparts basic rights
a form of government that exerts almost total control over a people
a form of government in which an individual has seized power
party associated with with wealthy
party that the majority of women typically vote for
party that the majority of men typically vote for
why do women and african americans vote differently than white men as of late
they make less money than white men
the separation of powers among the three branches of the U.S. government, so that each is able to nullify the actions of the other two, thus preventing any single branch from dominating the government
checks and balances
top arms seller from 2001-2004
United States ($28 billion)
top arms buyer from 2001-2004
Saudi Arabia ($19 billion)