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Pablo Ben SDSU
Terms in this set (94)
When did human history begin? For how long have we humans lived as hunters and gatherers?
Origin of homo sapiens: 250 - 200,000 years ago
Started in prehistory
Beginning about 200,000 years ago and until this day (For the first 190,000 years humans were hunter gatherers)
Explain the pace of population growth throughout human history.
Rate of population growth in the foraging era was slow.
For the last 300 years, world population has grown exponentially
Explain reciprocity and why it was the most advantageous behavior for hunters and gatherers.
Giving (reciprocity): A gives object to B but B has no obligation to pay or give back something of the same value
Creates a social bond of reciprocity
Reciprocity is the idea you have someone's back in their time of need
Reciprocity: exchanging of gifts between parties
Advantageous for foragers because they could easily borrow or share items they may not have brought with them
Advantageous because you are able to cement a bond that can later be beneficial in your time of need
"Objects are a burden when you're on the move"
Hunters and Gatherers were constantly on the move, how did that affect their lives in a way that made it different from ours?
Mobility means lack of storage
-Limit to the number of objects you can own → giving (sharing) may encourage others to give back when you need it → no difference between rich and poor
Simple technology → everyone can make it with materials available everywhere
-Carrying makes no sense → sharing makes sense
Private property does not exist
Origin of Agriculture
around 10k years ago
Explain the label "agrarian era" listing its most important characteristics and discuss when the era began comparing with the era of foragers.
The era of human history when agriculture was the most important of all productive technologies and the foundation for most human societies
Why was the agrarian era characterized by greater diversity than the era of foragers?
Greater diversity than era of foragers or modern era
Diversity was a product of both technological innovations and technological sluggishness
Greater diversity in agrarian era due to the relative isolation of different regions
Lack of outside contact
Describe the parallels between different parts of the world during the agrarian era
Agriculture appeared quite independently in several regions; so did states, cities monuments, and writing
What impact did agriculture have on the environment?
Agriculture magnified human impact on environment
Removing of species (plants and animals) to create ideal setting
Why was technological change more "intensive" during the agrarian era?
It allowed more humans to live within a given range
What are the earlier examples of agriculture throughout the world?
Fertile Crescent (8000 BCE), cattle in the Sahara Desert (9000 or 8000 BCE)
Why did foragers resist the transition to agriculture whenever they could? Why did the transition to agriculture took place despite such resistance to change?
Health and nutritional levels of farmers were lower than foragers
Agriculture began spreading because populations of farming communities grew much faster
Villages would become overpopulated requiring people to move
How did agriculture spread towards the surrounding areas once it appeared in a given region?
As villages became overpopulated, families would settle beyond the borders of their village
Why did agriculture lead to population growth
What was the "secondary-products" revolution?
The era where people made more efficient use of secondary products of large livestock (fibers, milk, manure, tractor)
Why were agricultural peoples more prone to epidemic diseases?
Close contact with animals
Contact with neighboring communities made it easy to spread
Why did agricultural societies develop hierarchies of power?
As a surplus of product formed it allowed for nonfarmers to live there
They would exchange items
Those with more or better products had more power
How did the Mongol expansion in the 1200s and 1300s encouraged the globalization of the world in the 1400s and 1500s?
Mongol Empire was the largest empire in world history, comprising one third of the land area of the globe
Late 1200s - empire grew, mid-late 1300s - empire began to collapse
Successor empires extended their reach beyond the areas the Mongols had originally controlled
"Four central forms of interaction: new commercial exchange networks, large scale migration streams, worldwide biological exchanges, and transfers of knowledge across oceans and continents"
"Mongol rulers encouraged travel and trade, giving a variety of Europeans the opportunity to encounter the wonders of Asian lands"
Why is it important to start an analysis of modern world history with China?
Global Perspective (not Eurocentric)
towards the 1500s -China was More Powerful
-Chinese didn't want anything from Europeans, they only accepted silver as payment
-Size of the economy
Why were the Voyages of Zheng He relevant for us? (compare with Columbus)
Understanding magnitude of Zheng's ships
Why did the Chinese navy experience a decline after 1435?
Political troubles - emperor died and the country split between continuing voyages and protecting themselves from the Mongol Empire
Explain the importance of the Indian Ocean in world history between the year 650 to 1500 considering the changes that happened during that period.
Crossroads of trade
Trade was self-regulating, there was no one power
Islam spread, provided common language
Chinese and Arabs competed for trade in Indian Ocean
Why does the author say that towards the 1500 China and India were the engines that drove global trade?
China was a great agrarian empire and produced much of what it needed, still needed to trade for horses, some raw materials, preciosities, and silver.
India had three great textile manufacturing centers
What was the importance of Islam between the years 1300 and 1500?
Saudi Arabia was in the middle of world trade → lots of power, great traders
Were able to expand trade because they were tolerant
Araibic was the language of communication in the 1500s → if you wanted to talk to people throughout the world at the time, this was the language you needed to know
Islam had rules about trade
Islam was in a strategic location at the heart of Afro-Eurasia
Sharing a worldview and language was beneficial for traders travelling throughout many different areas of the world
Many people converted to Islam because of the benefits related to trade and a very cosmopolitan culture
When did Europe begin to have an edge over other areas of the world and why?
Late 1800s - steamships
How long would the trip take and what where the obstacles they would encounter? (Andres Resendez)
2 long weeks
Shipwrecks along river's course - difficult to navigate
Entire month of open-ocean sailing
Why was the trip so challenging and uncomfortable for the crew? List all the problems the crew had to face.
Overcrowding, each person had about 1.8 sq yds of personal space
Had to share space with animals
Nowhere to properly sleep
What role do the Tlaxcalans, Cholulans, and Spaniards play in the conflict described in these lines?
Tlaxcalans + Spaniards vs. the Cholulans
How does Equiano describe life in Africa?
According to Equiano, how did people become slaves in Africa? Who enslaved them and how?
Seized by kidnappers and sold to slave traders. Also a lot of their slaves were criminals or prisoners of war and that was their punishment
What was the role Europeans played in the slave trade?
Explain the characteristics of the Middle-Passage.
Crammed, unclean, inhumane, many became sick and hungry. They were tied in chains.
Compare slavery in Africa and in the Americas
Slavery much more brutal in America than in Africa
Do Equiano and Snelgrave provide similar descriptions of the slave trade and slavery? What are the similarities between what the two of them say?
Do Equiano and Snelgrave represent slavery and the slave trade in different ways? How? Explain the differences.
Where did the majority of slaves go in the Americas? What percentage ended up in Brazil, the United States, and in the Caribbean?
80% of African slaves went to Brazil or Caribbean
10% of African slaves went to US
How did the Europeans first engage in the slave trade? What role did the Portuguese play in the trade?
Portuguese were originally looking to bypass Muslim North Africans
This led to Portuguese learning that money could be made by transporting slaves along the Atlantic coast to Muslim merchants
What was the role slaves play as the Europeans arrived in and conquered the Americas?
Africans were part of most expeditions to the region
Slaves were put to work on sugar plantations and gold mines, etc
4. When did the slave trade end? What caused the end of the trade?
End of trans-Atlantic slave trade began in early 19th century
Why is it important to start with Brazil when trying to understand slavery in the Americas? How did slavery start in Brazil and why did the Portuguese shift from native slaves to African slaves?
Shift from native slaves to African slaves because natives quickly fell victim to European diseases or fled to the unnavigated interior of the country
Europeans deemed natives too fragile for plantation labor and began importing African slaves
In addition to sugar plantations, in what areas of the economy were slaves forced to work?
As household servants
What was the long-term effect of slavery in Brazil?
Slavery became an entrenched part of the system
How was slavery justified by the Portuguese in Brazil?
need for labor
Why did African culture have a stronger impact in Brazil than in the United States?
Brazil slave trade lasted two generations longer than US
Where is Haiti located and why was it important for the history of slavery? What role did the French play in slavery and in Haiti?
Island of Hispaniola
French settled in on Hispaniola
Wanted to cultivate indigo but quickly exhausted the soil
Moved on to more profitable crop, sugar
What was the average lifespan of a slave in Haiti during the 1700s?
less than 7 years
What was the proportion of slaves and free colonists in Haiti? How did the French manage to keep slavery despite being a small minority?
10 slaves to 1 free colonist
French had a strict and often violent way of controlling their slaves
Where there slaves in the Spanish colonies? What role did the Spanish play in the slave trade?
Far less slaves in Spanish colonies compared to Haiti and Brazil
Bought slaves to work in their colonies
More often purchased slaves from British and Dutch traders
In what areas of Spanish America were the numbers of slaves larger?
Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Explain how the division of labor operates by describing the example of pinch making.
What does Adam Smith mean when he says that the division of labor leads to an "increase of the productive powers of labour." (p. 9)
How does the division of labor affect the price of a commodity?
it makes the final price cheaper
In page 11 Smith describes three reasons for the increase of productivity: dexterity, saving of time and invention of machinery. Explain how these issues increase productivity.
Work is divided into different operations
Each person performs only one operation
Through team work, a collective of people produce the whole object
-When someone is doing only one task, they become more skillful at that one task
Become a specialist at that one aspect
Saving of time in passing from one task to another
The focused worker invents and innovates more
How does the increase in the division of labor lead to more opulence and trade? See page 15.
As it is applied to Great Britain, the British will increase their exports
Fosters more growth of global trade
Encourages inventions: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TOWARDS 1750
On page 16, Smith states: "...without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to what we very falsely imagine, the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated." Explain the meaning of these words.
Consider the description of the division of labor in this novel and compare with the pinch workshop described by Adam Smith.
Life of hunter-gatherer societies, why they are important to understand the totality of world history, types of exchange prevailing in these societies.
What triggered the Industrial Revolution (1750-1850)
BEFORE: Self subsistence community: production → only what is needed for subsistence
THEN: Wage labor and free market: production → NO LIMIT
1. Rise of consumption and trade in europe
2. International connections
Factors leading to modern global capitalism
Economic crisis in the 1300s was partly responsible for the plague
Population was reduced by half (approx)
People became more valuable than land
More land for those who survived and increased purchasing power
More purchasing power gives a boost to trade
Europeans were becoming traders throughout the world between the 1400s and the 1600s
Enclosures drive farmers to cities (Britain 1600s to 1800s) where they become wage laborers
Modern Global Capitalism
transition from self sufficient to co-dependent societies that led to a generalized exchange of commodities at a global level
By the 1850s the Europe had become the major exporter of manufactured products - Why?
Rise of technology applied to production
Mass production of better quality commodities at a lower price than before
Higher productivity means you can lower the price and beat competition
Europe is finally becoming the wealthier part of the world
Non-industrialized areas cannot compete with the quality and price of commodities from industrialized areas
Handcraft and artisans in non-industrialized areas began to disappear
Non-industrialized areas become producers of raw materials
Industrial revolution (division of labor and machines) → increasing productivity → cheaper textiles of better quality
First item to be industrialized was fabric/clothes
Rest of the world
Older forms of production by artisans → more expensive textiles of lesser quality → impossibility to compete with European manufacturers → artisans close their businesses
When one area of the world develops, other areas underdeveloped (winners and losers)
Before the Industrial Revolution:
many areas of the world produced luxury commodities and most of the international trade was limited to a few luxury products
After the Industrial Revolution (ex India)
Before England became industrialized, India produced more cotton textiles or better quality
English productivity increased to an unprecedented level:
Division of labor
machinery (spinning wheels and steam engine)
The english began to import cotton to make fabrics
English tectiles became cheaper and of better quality than Indian textiles
Indian production of cotton fabric collapsed
Industrialization will make europe more powerful than other areas of the world and trigger an expansion of european power throughout the world
But european power is very recent, it only becomes significant between 1750 and 1850, not before
Economic growth upsets the social order
Weakening of the nobility and eventually the monarchies
Weakening of traditional and religious views
Emergence of a new political system in the Americas and Europe
Kings in Europe in the 1700s had absolute power (dictatorship)
People did not have the right to vote and had no say in politics whatsoever
Revolutions in the Atlantic World
American Independence 1776
French Revolution 1789
Haitian Revolution 1791 - 1804
Independence of Latin America 1810 - 1820
All of these revolutions happened within the span of 50 years
Independence of Latin America
Tension between European Empires
Different european empires controlled different areas of the world, but they were fighting each other for land
Fighting with one another to get a piece of land somewhere else in the world, fighting for control over certain areas
Expensive - large Navy needed
Regular people are taxed more and more to fund this → growing desire to have some control over this military spending
Imperial Wars in the late 1700s and early 1800s
Increase in taxes for the colonies
Rebellions against colonial taxation
French and Indian Wars (1754 - 1763)
Different native groups siding with the French or the British (siding with on of the two European powers)
American Revolution 1776
The British Empire attempts to raise more taxes from Americans
The American colonies do not want to pay more taxes
The colonies come to identify the monarchy and aristocracy in Britain as factors undermining their own development
Rise of democracy
The united states becomes a model for countries in other parts of the world
The French gave the Americans a significant amount of money and resources to fight
Statue of Liberty given to America to remind them that they were a critical part of winning the revolution
Conflict with Creoles
Tupac Amaru Rebellion - bc spanish trying to increase taxation
Tupac Amaru Rebellion (1780 - 1782)
Did not want to keep paying more taxes to the Spanish
Reason (the concept of reason)
Creating knowledge that needs evidence
Truth does not come from authority
Goes against tradition and religious thinking
Goes against faith - blinding believing something with no evidence
The notion of reason is closely related to the idea of Democracy - you are not right just because you say so
Equality under the law
Popular sovereignty: people rule, we get to say who will be elected
Sometimes these principles can be conflicting - gay marriage is a human right (equality under the law), but what if the majority of people do not want it? (popular sovereignty)
French Revolution (1789-1815)
The government debt in France had become almost impossible to pay back
They fought for the freedom of America, but they didn't have freedom themselves
The King, Louis XVI called the Estates-General to find a solution
August 26, 1789 - the french rebelled against the king and created the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
Influential piece that inspired many other revolutions
The Haitian Revolution (1791 - 1804)
The french fought for :equality: but did not want to grant freedom to the slaves
Slaves in Haiti embraced the idea of equality and demanded freedom, which required independence from France
First successful slave rebellion which creates an independent country that granted slaves freedom and equality under the law
Very long and bloody revolution
The Haitian Revolution and formation of the United States
French allow americans to buy this portion of land because they lose interest in their American colonies after the revolution
Without this revolution, this may have never happened
Napoleon Bonaparte, 1804 - 1815
After inventing the draft to defend France from foreign invasions, the country developed the most powerful army in the European continent
Before this, armies were comprised of mercenaries, not the general public of the country
France eventually came to control a number of sister republics and occupied territories
In 1812, the French occupied a significant portion of Europe
Napoleon Bonaparte occupied Spain
The spanish king (Ferdinand VII) is secluded in France and replaced by Joseph Nonaparte (brother of Napoleon)
The Spanish American colonies do not recognize the authority of Joseph Bonaparte and become independent
Napoleon Bonaparte defeated in Waterloo, 1815
Spain wants to rule Spanish America again, but the colonies do not accept
Latin American wars of independence
King John VI of Portugal escapes to Brazil with his court and 15,000 people to avoid being caught by the French
Portuguese Crown (ship) departs from Lisbon in November 1807 → arrive in Rio de Janeiro in 1808
Brazil is now the center of the Portuguese empire and not a colony anymore
After Napoleon is defeated in 1815, the king returns to Portugal and grants independence to Brazil
Tensions created by the revolution
Ideals of Equality are supposed to be universal
But they were not applied to everyone
Women and slaves were not considered equal under the law
Political Systems after the Revolution
Taxation implies representation
Separation of state and church
Separation of powers: legislative, judicial, executive
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
The prevalence of inequality inspired the rise of communism, as people were living terrible lives and not making much money at all, especially in comparison to the mega-rich
In the 1800s it was very rare to find kids going to school, at the age of 5 they were already working in the factories
Women (even pregnant) worked in factories as well → very common to tie the baby up for hours while they worked
More than 4,000,000 people died in Ireland in the 1840s due to famine
Handful of people becoming wealthier while millions died → equally distributed wealth seemed like a good idea (communism)
More than half of the world embraced communism at this time
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
Capitalism brought a different way of life
The railway allowed people to travel to the city and it brought new ideas
Gender roles start breaking bc women are experiencing more opportunities
Gave women a degree of independence that they did not have before
LGBT movement starts around this time as well
Breaking away from tradition
Capitalism was constantly changing, brought new opportunities, helped economy thrive
Some believed capitalism should be abolished and a new society needed to emerge
Concerned with the degree of exploitation
Every once in a while there is a cycle of fast economic growth and then crisis
Nature of capitalism and the free market - self regulating
Free market is chaotic - supply/demand
Demand bigger than supply → price goes up
three fundamental aspects of capitalism
Generalized exchange of commodities
Almost everything can be bought and sold
The different regions of the world are co-dependent through division of labor
Columbus arrives in the americas
Route of lost explorers
an engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power.
First steam locomotive
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