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BIO1B: Evolution Practice Questions
Terms in this set (42)
In the Origin of Species, what was the point of Darwin's discussion of the rudimentary legs of some snakes?
A. There must be some purpose they serve.
B. They indicate descent from a species with fully developed legs.
C. They must have evolved because of sexual selection.
D. They would not be present in a domesticated species of snake.
E. They do not present a problem for his theory because some species of snakes do not have rudimentary legs.
Uniformitarianism is an important assumption in historical sciences because
A. without the uniformitarianism assumption, scientists cannot determine what occurred in the past.
B. without the uniformitarianism assumption, scientists cannot determine what processes caused past events.
C. without the uniformitarianism assumption, scientists cannot determine if past events occurred gradually or abruptly.
D. without the uniformitarianism assumption, scientists cannot predict what will occur in the future.
Which one of the following statements best describes the importance of homologous structures for Darwin's argument?
A. Homologous structures are evidence of a shared function.
B. Homologous structures indicate a shared ancestry.
C. Homologous structures indicate that organisms share a common habitat.
D. Homologous structures are consistent with an independent creation model.
Which statement best describes the neo-Darwinian synthesis?
A. Evolution is caused by changes in allele frequencies within species.
B. Evolution is caused by Mendelian inheritance.
C. Evolution occurs because some individuals are heterozygous at some loci.
D. Evolution occurs because some individuals are homozygous at some loci.
E. Evolution of characters affected by Mendelian alleles cannot occur.
Which of the following populations samples is closest to the Hardy-Weinberg frequencies?
A. AA: 600, Aa: 300, aa: 100
B. AA: 500, Aa: 500, aa: 500
C. AA: 700, Aa: 200, aa: 100
D. AA: 340, Aa: 320, aa: 340
E. AA: 640, Aa: 320, aa: 40
If one individual in 1,000,000 has a genetic disease caused by a recessive Mendelian allele, roughly what fraction of individuals in a randomly mating population are heterozygous carriers of this disease allele?
If the frequencies of the three genotypes in a population, AA, Aa, and aa are 0.5, 0.2, and 0.3 (in order), the frequency of the A allele is:
Assume you determine the genotypes of 1,000 adults at the locus that codes for Beta-globin. In which one of the following data sets is there evidence for selection in favor of the heterozygous individuals?
A. AA: 200, AS: 600, SS: 200
B. AA: 640, AS: 320, SS: 40
C. AA: 600, AS: 300, SS: 100
D. AA: 1000, AS: 0, SS: 0
E. None of the above
Assume you are studying the fitnesses of individuals with different genotypes at the B-globin locus in a population. The following are lists of the fractions of newborn individuals with each genotype that survive to adulthood. Which one of the following indicates that there is directional selection in favor of A in this population?
A. AA: 0.9, AS: 0.95, SS: 0.2
B. AA: 0.9, AS: 0.95, SS: 0.9
C. AA: 0.9, AS: 0.85, SS: 0.2
D. AA: 0.9, AS: 0.85, SS: 0.9
E. AA: 0.9, AS: 0.95, SS: 0.95
Which pair of words best fills the blank in the following sentence? In areas with a high incidence of malaria, the S allele of the B-globin gene is maintained in high frequency by _________ selection; in regions where malaria is not present, S will be eliminated by _________ selection.
A. adaptive, maladaptive
B. directional, purifying
C. purifying, directional
D. balancing, purifying
E. directional, balancing
Which one of the following is NOT a mutation?
A. a change in a single nucleotide
B. the loss of a chromosome
C. the duplication of a chromosome
D. a change in allele frequency
E. the duplication of a gene
Which word best fills the blank in the following sentence? The discovery of an allele from LL601 rice in other varieties of rice illustrates the importance of _________.
A. natural selection
B. genetic drift
D. gene flow
Which pair of words best fills the blanks in the following sentence? The substitution of neutral alleles is called _________ evolution because it is not caused by ________.
A. Darwinian, genetic drift
B. non-Darwinian, genetic drift
C. Darwinian, natural selection
D. non-Darwinian, natural selection
E. None of the above
What is the approximate rate of substitution of neutral mutations in animals?
A. 2x10^-11 per nucleotide per year
B. 2x10^-9 per nucleotide per year
C. 2x10^-7 per nucleotide per year
D. 1/1000 per nucleotide per year
E. 2% per year
Which phrase best fills in the blank in the following sentence? The high frequency of an allele causing Huntington's disease in San Luis, Venezuela is the result of _________.
A. gene flow
B. a founder event
C. directional selection
D. balancing selection
Mutations at the Mc1r gene cause _______ coats in Pinacates rock pocket mice, and is maintained by ________.
A. agouti, migration
B. dark, mutation
C. dark, natural selection
D. melanic, gene flow
E. mutant, mutation
The experiment by Dice, in which Barn Owls were released into a barn with deermice on different colored substrates demonstrates what?
A. That natural selection acts to maintain dark coat coloration in Pinacates mice.
B. That the mice are selectively bred to avoid owl predation.
C. That mice can easily outrun owls.
D. That owls can more easily see and prey on mice whose coats mismatch their substrate.
What statement provides the best definition of a monophyletic group?
A. a group of species in the same genus.
B. a group containing an ancestral species and all of its descendants.
C. a group containing an ancestral species and some of its descendants.
D. a group containing an ancestral species and none of its descendants.
E. a group containing descendants of two ancestral species that are in different taxonomic groups.
What statement provides the best definition of a phylogenetic classification system?
A. Taxonomic groups are all polyphyletic.
B. Taxonomic groups are all paraphyletic.
C. Taxonomic groups are all monophyletic.
D. Taxonomic groups are all homologous.
E. Members of taxonomic groups are all found in the same geographic area.
The Pongidae is not a monophyletic family because
A. Bonobos and chimps are in different genera.
B. There is more than one species of Pongidae.
C. Humans are classified as being in a different family.
D. The divergence of different species in the Pongidae was very recent.
E. Some species of Pongidae are sexually dimorphic.
Which one of the following would you regard as the best evidence that there was substantial gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans?
A. The nuclear DNA of modern humans is similar to the mtDNA of modern humans.
B. Some mtDNAs from modern humans are closer to the mtDNA of Neanderthals than they are to mtDNAs of other humans.
C. There is less sequence variation among mtDNAs of modern humans than we previously thought.
D. There is more sequence variation among mtDNAs of modern humans than has been found.
E. There is more sequence variation among mtDNAs of Neanderthals than has been found.
Which statement best describes the evolution of wings in insects?
A. Wings originated once and were lost many times.
B. Wings originated many times and were lost many times.
C. Wings originated many times and were lost only once.
D. Wings in insects are homologous to wings in birds.
E. None of the above
Which answers best fill the blanks in the following sentence? In animals, parthenogenesis results in siblings that are genetically _________ one another, while mating of males and females results in siblings that are genetically _________ one another.
A. related to, unrelated to
B. polyploidy to, haploid to
C. larger than, smaller than
D. the same as, different from
E. different from, the same as
Which one of the following provides the best definition of isogamy?
A. Isogamous species have temperature-dependent sex determination.
B. Isogamous species produce gametes of the same size.
C. Isogamous species are haploid.
D. Isogamous species are polyploid.
E. Isogamous species produce gametes of different sizes.
Which one of the following best fills the blanks in the following statement? Darwin described two kinds of sexual selection, ___________ and __________.
A. isogamous, anisogamous
B. competition of males for females, competition of females for males
C. competition of males for females, female choice
D. haploid, diploid
E. early, late
What type of evidence would best be able to demonstrate that Baker's larkspur, Delphinium bakeri, is a separate species instead of a slightly different form of a widespread species?
A. Baker's larkspur has flowers that differ in color from those of related species.
B. Drawings made by early settlers in California show that Baker's larkspur once had a much larger geographic range.
C. Baker's larkspur plants cannot be hybridized to plants from other geographic areas.
D. Individual plants of Baker's larkspur are taller on average than related species found in the same area.
E. None of the above
Mules are sterile because they cannot produce functional gametes. This is evidence that
A. horses and donkeys are members of the same species.
B. horses and donkeys are separated by genetic drift.
C. horses and donkeys are separated by a founder event.
D. horses and donkeys are separated by a prezygotic barrier.
E. horses and donkeys are separated by a postzygotic barrier.
Which one of the following is a necessary step in the process of species formation?
A. The appearance of a new morphological structure.
B. A change in the number of chromosomes.
C. A change in geographic location.
D. A reduction in gene flow.
E. The formation of a new genus.
Which pair of words best completes the following sentence? In the ___________ theory of speciation, a barrier to __________ is the initial step.
A. allopolyploid, autopolyploid
B. sympatric, dispersal
C. allopatric, dispersal
D. allopatric, selection
E. sympatric, selection
What has favored the evolution of many species of fig wasps?
A. Fig wasps are very small.
B. Fig wasps can fly long distances.
C. Fig wasp species are very different in size.
D. Each fig wasp species lays eggs on only one species of fig.
E. Fig wasp species are hermaphroditic.
Which is the correct assignment of approximate dates to the ends of the eras listed?
A. Precambrian (542 mya), Paleozoic (251 mya), Mesozoic (65.5 mya)
B. Precambrian (542 mya), Paleozoic (251 mya), Mesozoic (50 mya)
C. Precambrian (2200 mya), Paleozoic (542 mya), Mesozoic (50 mya)
D. Precambrian (1200 mya), Paleozoic (251 mya), Mesozoic (65.5 mya)
E. Precambrian (542 mya), Paleozoic (65.5 mya), Mesozoic (6 mya)
On which of the following points was Darwin INcorrect?
A. Sexual selection often operates through female choice.
B. Relationships among taxa can be estimated from shared-derived traits.
C. Ecologically diverse but related species on island archipelagos often represent adaptive radiation from a common ancestor derived from adjacent continents.
D. Missing transitional forms in the fossil record will be discovered with further collecting and analysis.
E. Inheritance works through blending of heritable factors.
"Descent with modification" as illustrated in the "Origin of the species" refers to:
A. A phylogeny estimated using morphological characters in the fossil record.
B. Speciation without extinction.
C. Effects of directional selection within a single lineage.
D. Diversification of phenotypically distinct forms via natural selection and from a common ancestor.
E. Effects of environmental variation during development on adult phenotype.
A formerly large, random-mating population switches to a high rate of inbreeding. As a consequence:
A. The frequency of disadvantageous, recessive alleles will increase.
B. Migration rates will decrease.
C. Genetic drift will be stronger.
D. Recessive, deleterious traits are more evident in the population.
E. Dominant traits will be selected against.
What sequence of events led to the neo-Darwinian synthesis:
A. Mendel's principles of inheritance and (ii) discovery of the structure of DNA
B. Development of the concept of descent with modification through natural selection and (ii) Mendel's principles of inheritance.
C. Discovery of the structure of DNA and (ii) sequencing of the human genome
D. Mendel's principles of inheritance and (ii) sequencing of the human genome
E. Development of the concept of descent with modification through natural selection and (ii) discovery of the structure of DNA
Directional selection differs from stabilizing selection in that:
A. Directional selection operates only in small populations whereas stabilizing selection is effective in both small and large populations
B. Directional selection favors intermediate over extreme phenotypes, whereas stabilizing selection favors one end of the phenotype distribution
C. Directional selection favors one end of the phenotype distribution, whereas stabilizing selection favors intermediate over extreme phenotypes
D. Directional selection requires new mutations whereas stabilizing selection operates on existing variation
E. Directional selection operates on existing variation, and stabilizing selection operates on existing variation
Relative to asexual (eg. "parthenogenetic" or "apomictic") reproduction, sexual reproduction increases genetic diversity within populations by:
A. Increasing mutation rate.
B. Promoting sexual selection.
C. Increasing mutation rate and recombination.
D. Independent assortment and recombination.
E. Sexual selection and recombination.
In the marsupial mouse (Antechinus), multiple mated females tend to have a higher proportion of surviving offspring than those that mate just once. This illustrates:
A. Sperm competition and indirect benefits of female choice.
B. The principle of natural selection. C. Reduced fecundity (# ova) in females that mate just once.
D. Limitations on fertilization success.
E. Good luck.
The diversity of species concepts arises because:
A. Botanists favor the Biological species concept (BSC) whereas Zoologists are focused on the Phylogenetic species concept (PSC);
B. Prezygotic isolation (BSC) evolves before the evolution of distinct character states (PSC)
C. Distinct character states (PSC) evolve before prezygotic isolation (BSC)
D. Of inherent difficulty in unambiguously recognizing distinct evolutionary lineages during early stages of divergence
E. Evolutionary biologists are clueless
As seen in the Ensatina salamanders, secondary contact between previously isolated lineages can result in a stable hybrid zone. This reflects:
A. Complete speciation.
C. Hybrid speciation.
D. Fusion of previously separated lineages.
E. A balance between immigration from parental populations and selection against hybrids.
Which of the following best describes the unique importance of the fossil record:
A. It provides the only source of information on relationships among living taxa
B. It provides the only source of information on divergence times of living taxa
C. It provides the only source of information on phenotypes of extinct taxa
D. It provides the only source of information on evolutionary trends over time
E. It provides the only source of information on population sizes over time
The hominin lineage
A. Includes modern humans and our descendants after the split with the chimpanzee lineage, and diversified rapidly in Africa between 2 and 4 million years ago B. Includes modern humans and our descendants after the split with the chimpanzee lineage, and diversified rapidly in Africa about 100,000 years ago
C. Includes humans, chimpanzees and gorillas and their descendents from a common ancestor
D. Is paraphyletic in relation to chimpanzees and gorillas
E. Excludes modern humans
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