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carbon chemistry

the science of the composition, structure, properties and reactions of carbon based matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems


information that has been objectively verified


an assertion subject to verification or proof as a premise from which a conclusion is formed

information technology

the technical means that humans create to store and transmit information


a systematic processes for using knowledge and skills to acquire and apply new knowledge

instructional technology

any mechanical aid used to assist in or enhance the processes of learning to teaching


summarizing statement of observed experimental facts that has been tested many times and is generally accepted as true


a description, analogy or a representation of something that helps us understand it better


a variable star that suddenly increases in brightness to several times its normal magnitude and returns to its original appearance in a few weeks or months or years


repeated processes that are exhibited in a variety of ways

radioactive isotope

an atom that gives off nuclear radiation and has the same number of protons as another atom but a different amount of neutrons


relates concepts and ideas to one another by some measurement


search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation

technological design process

recognizing the problem, proposing a solution, implementing the solution, evaluating the solution and communicating the problem

technology education

the application of tools, materials, processes and systems to solve problems and extend the human capabilities


any device used to extend human capabilities including computer-based tools

angular momentum

the resistance of an object to changes of rotation


the smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element

colligative properties

properties of solutions that depend on the number of particles in a given volume of solvent and not on the mass of the particles


a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass


the transfer of heat through solids


transfer of heat by moving the molecules of a gas and/or liquid

Coulomb's Law

electrical charges attract or repel one another with a force proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance


the flow of electrons through a conductor


the ratio of its mass (m) to its volume (V), a measure of how tightly the matter within it is packed together


the flow of electrons through a conductor or the addition or loss of electrons from a material

electrochemical reactions

any process either caused or accompanied by the passage of an electric current and involving in most cases the transfer of electrons between two substances-one solid and the other a liquid

electromagnetic force

the force that charged objects exert on one another

electromagnetic spectrum

electromagnetic waves can exhibit a distribution of frequencies ranging below radio wave to light beyond the visible

electron orbital transitions

the probability distribution of an electron in an atom or molecule


a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., by the number of protons in its nucleus


a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat

engineering design process

the process or method used by engineers to solve a problem 1. Define a problem 2. Generate ideas 3. Select a solution and test it 4. Make the item 5. Evaluate the item 6. Communicate the solution with others 7. Present the results


a condition in which all acting influences are canceled by others, resulting in a stable, balanced or unchanging system


a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in the form of light, sound or electricity


the number of repeated wave cycles per second


a massive, gravitationally bound system consisting of stars, an interstellar medium of gas and dust and dark matter


the fundamental force of attraction that all objects with mass have for each other

hydrogen bonds

a special type of dipole-dipole force that exists between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to Nitrogen, Oxygen or Fluorine


rock produced under conditions involving intense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma


the resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion


the introduction of something new or a new idea, method or device


a creation of the mind, and both the process to arrive at this creation and the capabilities to create it

Kinetic Molecular Theory

explains the forces between molecules and the energy that they possess

Law of Superposition

a general law stating that in any sequence of sediments or rocks that has not been overturned, the youngest sediments or rocks are at the top of the sequence and the oldest are at the bottom


a material that attracts or repels the same material and attracts iron and steel


how much matter there is in an object


the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere and focuses on weather processes and forecasting


a substance that is not the same from one sample to the next, and a mixture can be separated into its parts; two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically joined

molar mass

the mass of one mole of a substance, chemical element or chemical compound


Avogadro's number of the constituent entities of that substance


the smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms


deals with materials and machines on an incredibly tiny scale - less than one billionth of a meter

Newton's Laws

three laws that explain the motion of objects caused by forces

nuclear processes

the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the nuclei of atom(s)

nuclear reactions

a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles

Ohm's Law

voltage is equal to the current times the resistance


the time in seconds for one wave cycle to occur

periodic table

a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements; used to illustrate recurring trends in the properties of the elements

plate tectonics

the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust


description of how equally bonding electrons are shared between atoms


transfer of heat through light

radioactive decay

the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves


a material that causes a reduction in voltage between two points

rock cycle

the process by which rocks are formed, altered, destroyed, and reformed by geological processes


rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment

seismic events

the rupture of geological faults, huge amounts of gas migration, mainly methane deep within the earth, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts and nuclear experiments

simple harmonic motion

a motion that repeats over identical time intervals

specific heat

the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval


the three-dimensional arrangement of physical attributes (shape, height, depth) of a land surface in a place or region


a force applied at right angles to an object's center of rotation that cause rotation


the speed and direction of an object or wave


the difference of electrical potential between two points that cause current to flow


a model which is used for predicting the shapes of individual molecules based upon their extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion


the physical length of one cycle or period of a wave

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