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75 terms

Physical Science Vocabulary Practice (Physics, Chemistry, Earth and Space)

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carbon chemistry
the science of the composition, structure, properties and reactions of carbon based matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems
fact
information that has been objectively verified
hypothesis
an assertion subject to verification or proof as a premise from which a conclusion is formed
information technology
the technical means that humans create to store and transmit information
inquiry
a systematic processes for using knowledge and skills to acquire and apply new knowledge
instructional technology
any mechanical aid used to assist in or enhance the processes of learning to teaching
law
summarizing statement of observed experimental facts that has been tested many times and is generally accepted as true
model
a description, analogy or a representation of something that helps us understand it better
nova
a variable star that suddenly increases in brightness to several times its normal magnitude and returns to its original appearance in a few weeks or months or years
patterns
repeated processes that are exhibited in a variety of ways
radioactive isotope
an atom that gives off nuclear radiation and has the same number of protons as another atom but a different amount of neutrons
scale
relates concepts and ideas to one another by some measurement
science
search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation
technological design process
recognizing the problem, proposing a solution, implementing the solution, evaluating the solution and communicating the problem
technology education
the application of tools, materials, processes and systems to solve problems and extend the human capabilities
tool
any device used to extend human capabilities including computer-based tools
angular momentum
the resistance of an object to changes of rotation
atoms
the smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
colligative properties
properties of solutions that depend on the number of particles in a given volume of solvent and not on the mass of the particles
compounds
a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass
conduction
the transfer of heat through solids
convection
transfer of heat by moving the molecules of a gas and/or liquid
Coulomb's Law
electrical charges attract or repel one another with a force proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance
current
the flow of electrons through a conductor
density
the ratio of its mass (m) to its volume (V), a measure of how tightly the matter within it is packed together
electricity
the flow of electrons through a conductor or the addition or loss of electrons from a material
electrochemical reactions
any process either caused or accompanied by the passage of an electric current and involving in most cases the transfer of electrons between two substances-one solid and the other a liquid
electromagnetic force
the force that charged objects exert on one another
electromagnetic spectrum
electromagnetic waves can exhibit a distribution of frequencies ranging below radio wave to light beyond the visible
electron orbital transitions
the probability distribution of an electron in an atom or molecule
elements
a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., by the number of protons in its nucleus
endothermic
a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat
engineering design process
the process or method used by engineers to solve a problem 1. Define a problem 2. Generate ideas 3. Select a solution and test it 4. Make the item 5. Evaluate the item 6. Communicate the solution with others 7. Present the results
equilibrium
a condition in which all acting influences are canceled by others, resulting in a stable, balanced or unchanging system
exothermic
a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in the form of light, sound or electricity
frequency
the number of repeated wave cycles per second
galaxy
a massive, gravitationally bound system consisting of stars, an interstellar medium of gas and dust and dark matter
gravity
the fundamental force of attraction that all objects with mass have for each other
hydrogen bonds
a special type of dipole-dipole force that exists between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to Nitrogen, Oxygen or Fluorine
Igneous
rock produced under conditions involving intense heat, as rocks of volcanic origin or rocks crystallized from molten magma
inertia
the resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion
innovation
the introduction of something new or a new idea, method or device
invention
a creation of the mind, and both the process to arrive at this creation and the capabilities to create it
Kinetic Molecular Theory
explains the forces between molecules and the energy that they possess
Law of Superposition
a general law stating that in any sequence of sediments or rocks that has not been overturned, the youngest sediments or rocks are at the top of the sequence and the oldest are at the bottom
magnets
a material that attracts or repels the same material and attracts iron and steel
mass
how much matter there is in an object
meteorology
the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere and focuses on weather processes and forecasting
mixtures
a substance that is not the same from one sample to the next, and a mixture can be separated into its parts; two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically joined
molar mass
the mass of one mole of a substance, chemical element or chemical compound
mole
Avogadro's number of the constituent entities of that substance
molecules
the smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms
nanotechnology
deals with materials and machines on an incredibly tiny scale - less than one billionth of a meter
Newton's Laws
three laws that explain the motion of objects caused by forces
nuclear processes
the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the nuclei of atom(s)
nuclear reactions
a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles
Ohm's Law
voltage is equal to the current times the resistance
period
the time in seconds for one wave cycle to occur
periodic table
a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements; used to illustrate recurring trends in the properties of the elements
plate tectonics
the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust
polarity
description of how equally bonding electrons are shared between atoms
radiation
transfer of heat through light
radioactive decay
the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves
resistance
a material that causes a reduction in voltage between two points
rock cycle
the process by which rocks are formed, altered, destroyed, and reformed by geological processes
sedimentary
rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment
seismic events
the rupture of geological faults, huge amounts of gas migration, mainly methane deep within the earth, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts and nuclear experiments
simple harmonic motion
a motion that repeats over identical time intervals
specific heat
the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval
topography
the three-dimensional arrangement of physical attributes (shape, height, depth) of a land surface in a place or region
torque
a force applied at right angles to an object's center of rotation that cause rotation
velocity
the speed and direction of an object or wave
voltage
the difference of electrical potential between two points that cause current to flow
VSEPR
a model which is used for predicting the shapes of individual molecules based upon their extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion
wavelength
the physical length of one cycle or period of a wave