44 terms

FRUIT ANATOMY

vocabulary
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inferior ovary
ovary under petals
superior ovary
ovary over petals
Dry fruits
fruits whose seeds dispersed by wind, water, gravity, or animals to which the become attached/ Ex: grains and legumes
Fleshy fruits
fruits that evolved to attracted animals that will eat thme, but then spit out, drop, or pass the seeds unharmed away from the mother plant.
pericarp
ovary wall
endocarp
the inner most part of the fruit wall, covering the seed
mesocarp
the middle layer of the pericarp, often the part that is eaten.
exocarp
outermost layer of the pericarp of fruits as the skin of a peach or grape
drupe
Fleshy, simple fruit with a hard and stony endocarp, ovary superior, and single seeded (pitted). ex: cherry, olive, coconut
berry
Fleshy, simple fruit with fleshy/slimy endocarp with many seeds ex: tomatoe, grape, green pepper
Pome
Fleshy, Simple fruit made mostly of receptacle tissue. ex: apple, pear, quince.
Simple fruits
made from one ovary
Complex fruits
made from more than one ovary
Aggregate fruit
Fleshy, complex fruit from many carpels on a single flower. ex: strawberry, raspberry, blackberry.
Multiple fruit
Fleshy, complex fruit from many carpels of many flowers fused together. ex: pineapple
legume
Dry fruit that splits along two seams in the ovary at maturity and seeds are only found on one side. ex: pea/bean pods, peanuts.
Nut
Dry fruit that do not split open at maturity with a hard/thick pericarp and a cup at it's base. ex: acorn, chestnut, hickory.
Samara
Dry fruit that do not split open at maturity whose ovaries occur seperately. ex: maple, ash, elm.Dry at maturity; winged; single-seeded
Achene
Dry fruit that do not split open at maturity with a thin/not winged pericarp. Single seed attached to pericarp only at it's base. ex: sunflower, buttercup.
function of flower
reproduction and attracts pollinaters and
Turns into Fruit, Plants
pedicel
Supports flower, connects it to stem
sepals and petals
The specialized leaves of a flower that do not produce gametophytes are the
stamens
MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF A FLOWER
pistil
Female reproductive part
stigma
Pollen lands on it (sticky)
style
Connects the Stigma to the ovary
ovary
A flower structure that encloses and protects ovules and seeds as they develop.
ovules
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
pollen
A fine dust that contains the sperm of seed-producing plants
filament
Supports the anther
staminate flower
A flower that contains only male reproductive organs
pistillate flower
has pistils but no stamens
monoecious flowers
separate male and female flowers are present on the same individual plant
dioecious flowers
plants that produce only male or female flowers (imperfect flowers)
infloresecenses
flowers in clusters
length of daylight
chief factor affecting when plants flower
photoperiodism
A plant's response to seasonal changes in length of night and day
flower symmetry
radial symmetry (regular flowers) (cut across the middle in any direction); bilateral symmetry (irregular flowers) symmetrical only if cut from lengthwise
bilateral symmetry
Body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves.
bract
modified leaves with bright color that serve the same function of petals in attracting pollinators
what is the primary function of flowers?
producing seeds for reproduction
cross-pollination
a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
self-pollination
the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant
Cereal Grain
A grass that yields grain for food
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