what is the difference between sociology and psychology?
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Construals, schemas, and stereotypes all result from __________ and function as ___________.Inferences based on previous exposure to some type of information; efficient alternatives to systematic and deliberate mental processing.Because prior expectations based in experience influence construals, schemas:influence behavior and judgementA hypothesis ________ , whereas a theory ________.is tested by a specific study; encompasses a body of related researchAccording to Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self, we learn about ourselves throughour beliefs about what other people think of us.According to Festinger's (1954) social comparison theory, people often form judgments about their traits and abilities by comparing themselves with others. According to the theory, this process is most likely to occur whenpeople have no objective standard by which to judge themselves.Different theories make different predictions about the source of a person's self-esteem. For example, sociometer theory argues that self-esteem depends on ________, whereas the contingencies of self-worth account argues that self-esteem depends on ________.social acceptances versus social rejection; success versus failure in important life domainsGoffman's idea of face refers towho we want others to think we are.Members of which of the following tend to have interdependent self-construals?many African culturesSelf-schemas areknowledge-based summaries of our beliefs and feelings about the self in particular domainsThe better-than-average effect refers to the finding that peopletend to think that they are above average.The part of our self-knowledge that is conscious to us at any given time is called theworking self-conceptThe self-enhancement motive seems to better predict ________ responses to feedback, whereas the self-verification motive seems to better predict ________ responses.emotional; cognitiveTravis is trying to lose weight but loves eating chips. He avoids the chip aisle whenever he is at the grocery store. However, at his friend's holiday party, there is a big bowl of chips on the table. According to research on automatic self-control by Fishbach and colleagues (2003), what is likely to happen when Travis notices the bowl of chips at the party?He starts to think about his goal of losing weight.A social psychologist finds a relationship between socioeconomic status and relationship satisfaction in married couples. This study most likely describes which type of research method?correlationalA study shows that people who watch the local evening news believe the world is more dangerous than people who do not watch the evening news. On the basis of this study, a newspaper reporter concludes that watching the evening news causes people to believe the world is more dangerous than it actually is. This is a flawed conclusion becauseit confuses a correlational relationship with a causal relationship.All of the following are examples of resources used in archival research EXCEPTfirsthand observations of behavior.If a social psychology experiment were conducted that had very little relation to real-life experiences or situations, this experiment would be low inexternal validityIf an experiment produces reliable results, what does this mean?It is likely to yield the same results on repeated occasions.Interviews and written questionnaires are forms of which type of research method?surveyOpen science practices includesharing data and research materials with the broader scientific community to increase the integrity and replicability of researchResearch in basic science aims tounderstand a phenomenon in its own right, without concern about real-world issues.Which of the following best describes a research study that randomly assigns people to different conditions and carefully controls all of the other circumstances so that they will be the same across the two conditions?experiment________ refers to a person's habitual way of explaining many different types of events.explanatory style________ theory deals with how people assign causes to the events around them and the effects that these explanations have.attributionAccording to ________, our confidence that a particular cause is responsible for a given outcome is reduced if there are other plausible causes that might have produced it.the discounting principleAccording to the augmentation principle, which action is most likely to be attributed to the personality of the actor?wearing a tropical shirt and shorts to a funeralActors' and observers' attributions differ for many reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?They have the same information about their own versus others' behaviorHow does social class relate to causal attribution?Lower- or working-class individuals make attributions similar to those from interdependent cultures.The ________ holds that people have a tendency to believe that another person's behavior is due to his or her disposition rather than the situation in which that person finds him- or herself.fundamental attribution errorThe just world hypothesis, believing that good things happen to good people, is used to explain which psychological phenomenon?the fundamental attribution errorWhen it comes to causal attributions, what is true of the distinction between people from interdependent and independent cultures?People from interdependent cultures are more likely to use consensus information when making an attribution.When we engage in a self-serving bias, we attribute failure and other bad events that happen to us to ________, but we attribute success and other good events to ________.external circumstances; ourselves________ is the study of how people think about the social world and arrive at judgments that help them interpret the past, understand the present, and predict the future.social cognition________ processes consist of observing and remembering relevant stimuli from the outside world, and ________ processes filter and interpret stimuli in light of preexisting knowledge and expectations.Bottom-up; top-downAccording to the textbook, which of the following is NOT directly associated with schema activation?novel informationBecause schemas have been shown to influence ________, participants who are told to watch a video of a basketball game and count the number of times people in white shirts pass the ball might completely miss seeing a person in a black gorilla suit walk through the game.attentionMany members of a street gang believe privately that their initiation process is too harsh and dangerous. However, they do not express these beliefs because they assume that everyone else thinks the initiation process is just fine. This scenario exemplifiespluralistic ignoranceProcedures that momentarily activate a particular schema are referred to asprimingWhat are two essential components of a self-fulfilling prophesy?expectations about what a person is like and behaving toward the person in ways consistent with the expectationsWhich of the following is the best example of a positively framed statement?This brand of condom has an overall 75 percent success rate.Which of the following is true of schemas?Schemas can be primed outside of conscious awareness.You think of Jan as a very introverted person. The confirmation bias predicts that you willlook for examples of introverted behaviors in Jan.