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Terms in this set (46)
A person's biological characteristics that make him or her male or female.
a person whose gender identity does not match his or her biological sex.
A person's sense of being male or female.
- Socially prescribed actions, behaviors, and traits expected of men and women.
- Societal expectations of appropriate traits, characteristics, and behaviors of boys versus girls, men versus women are ______.
The attempt to rid oneself of a transgender identity by acting as stereotypically male or female as one can; these acts are an attempt to confirm that one's gender identity is the same as his or her biological sex
- A standardized belief about a group of people where all members are thought to be similar to each other in specific ways; these beliefs are often oversimplifications and can include prejudiced attitudes
- The term that describes the standardized belief that a certain group of people all have certain traits or all behave similarly to each other is best demonstrated by which term below?
When traits or behaviors of a specific gender are believed to be "essential," or natural/biologically determined
The process of a person performing poorly on tasks because of the pressure felt by knowing the negative stereotypes people have about his or her own group
A belief that heterosexuality is normal and right and other sexual orientations are abnormal or inferior to heterosexuality
A feeling of stress or pressure experienced by being torn between work, relationships, and parenting roles
Negative gender bias that often involves anger and combativeness directed at women.
Covert words or behaviors that express a denigration of women and ensure their continued inferiority; may appear kind and positive but they represent a sense that women are helpless or weak
The belief that men have certain inherent rights, roles, and responsibilities that are greater and more valuable than those of women
Gender Similarity Hypothesis
The idea that men and women are actually more similar than they are different and that gender differences are largely overstated
A research technique where the results of multiple studies can be analyzed together to assess the overall magnitude of effects for a given topic
Mental representations or cognitive templates that comprise a person's ideas about gender roles.
Gender Schema Theory
A theory of gender role development that focuses on children's changing gender schemas and the desire to perform socially accepted roles for their gender
A way of thinking wherein children's gender schemas are composed of stereotypical ideas about gender; thinking is inflexible regarding what is appropriate for boys and girls or men and women
A way of thinking wherein children's gender schemas are composed of diverse ideas about gender; thinking is very flexible and children find it easy to imagine and accept people who cross traditional gender lines
Social Cognitive Theory
A theory of gender role development that emphasizes children's modeling of adult role models and imitating the gender behaviors they see; gender roles are socialized through reinforcing gender appropriate and punishing gender inappropriate behaviors and traits
- People who are characteristically both highly feminine and highly masculine; not conforming rigidly to traditional gender roles
- A person who possesses both traditionally masculine and feminine traits in equal measure is referred to as:
The beginning of a woman's menstrual cycle; a woman's first menstrual period
- A definition of masculinity that centers on power, control, dominance, and achievement
- ______ is the societal expectation that men dominate women and children, women and men hold different jobs, and violence against women is acceptable.
The work done in families (usually by women) that maintains strong blood ties; activities include writing letters and sending cards, buying gifts, and organizing parties and gatherings
The term anthropologists often use for a person who does not fit into a traditional male or female gender category is ______.
Which of the following is an example of purging?
Dan, who is biologically male, joins the military to feel more masculine.
The term sexual orientation refers primarily to a person's:
Feelings of sexual attraction
Gender and biological sex are similar because both traits:
exist on a continuum.
Which woman is most likely to experience role strain?
Aisha, a business executive who takes primary responsibility for childcare.
Which of the following is an example of benevolent sexism?
A man withholds bad news from his wife to avoid upsetting her.
Which man is most likely to experience role strain?
Arnie, a police officer who cooks and cares for his children.
You are talking to a person you just met. Which statement would be an example of heteronormativity?
Will you and your wife join us for dinner?
According to the ______, women and men are more alike than most people believe.
Gender similarity hypothesis
According to social cognitive theory, children learn gender roles by all of the following, except:
following their innate sense of gender role behavior.
How does gender schema theory build on social cognitive theory?
It focuses on the cognitive processes people use to build gender schemas.
In adult men, the hormone progesterone does all of the following except:
create white blood cells.
Which of the following has NOT been a consequence of the Chinese government's "one-child" policy?
an increase in gender schematic children
Which of the following groups of girls tend to begin puberty earlier than average?
those who live in stressful environments
The term kinship work refers to an attempt to:
maintain ties with family members.
Which statement about women's social role in the United States is incorrect?
Women in the United States earn approximately the same wages as men.
Out of the choices below, which term refers to people with ambiguous genitalia or a combination of male and female genitalia?
People in the United States, compared with citizens of other countries in the industrialized world, are known to ______.
spend more private funds on health care
Test your knowledge, of those listed below identify who is transgender.
Sam, who is biologically male but feels that he is female.
Which of the following is an example of hostile sexism?
A man tells a sexist joke at a business meeting.
A researcher who examines the results of many previous studies is performing a meta-analysis.
The term menopause refers to the onset of menstruation.
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