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sense pressure changes in vessles, send afferent messages to the medulla oblongata, regulate blood pressure

Medulla Oblongata

sends efferent signals to the peripheral blood vessels and heart through vasoconstriction and vasodilation


Sense changes in CO2, O2 and H+; CO2 is converted to H+ via bicarbonate which changes blood pH; dominant controlling factor of respiration (H+)

Blood Pressure Formula


Blood pressure

caridac output times total periphreal resistance

Cardiac Output (CO)

Blood pumped by the heart per minute

Total Peripheral Resistance

Resistance as blood passes by walls. Constriction of blood vessesls increases this, dilation of blood vessels decreases this; blood viscosity, the thicker the greater this value.


measures systolic over diastolic. Used to calculate blood pressure

Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

Total amount of air the lungs can hold

Residual volume (RV)

amount of air left in lungs after max expiration

Vital Capacity (VC)

amount of air you can maximally expire after a maximal inspiration

Tidal Volume (TV)

air actually breathed in normal breathing

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal tidal volume exhalation

Exercise (Blood Pressure)

effects blood pressure through the sympathetic nervous system by increasing heart rate, which increase cardiac output, which increase blood pressure

Exercise (Respiration)

causes muscles to produce more CO2, which causes the chemoreceptors to sense a change in the H+ concentration which causes and increase in respiration


secreted by the liver; aids in lipid digestion

GI Tract

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

What makes up the GI Tract, in order?

Accessory organs

salivary glands (parotid, sublingual, submandibular), gall bladder, liver, pancreas


proteins, specific substrate, help regulate temperature and pH, are denatured by extreme heat


measures relative acidity or alkalinity, based on concentration of hydrogen ions, changes with digestive tract


pH in mouth


pH in stomach


pH in small intestine


composed of C, H and O; sugars and starches

Salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase

What two enzymes break down carbs? (in order of their appearance in digestion)

Salivary amylase

enzyme that begins carb digestion in mouth

pancreatic amylase

enzyme that breaks down carbs in the small intestine


fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol; composed of C, H, O and sometimes P; glycerol and fatty acids; good storage molecules; serve as structural components

Emulsification and the release of pancreatic lipase

What are the two steps of lipid digestion?


make up muscle tissue and enzymes; composed of 20 amino acids;

Pepsin and Trypsin

What enzymes are responsible for the digestion of proteins?


found in small intestine; works in an alkaline environment (pH 8-11)


found in the stomach; works in an acidic environment (pH of 2)


large protein molecules produced by body cells. They are biological catalysts; they increase the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product.


molecules upon which specific enzymes act. Organic foods that are broken down by enzymes

salivary amylase

the enzyme produced by the salivary glands and secreted into the mouth

pancreatic lipase

hydrolyzes fats and oils to their component monoglycerides and 2 fatty acids

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