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sense pressure changes in vessles, send afferent messages to the medulla oblongata, regulate blood pressure
sends efferent signals to the peripheral blood vessels and heart through vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Sense changes in CO2, O2 and H+; CO2 is converted to H+ via bicarbonate which changes blood pH; dominant controlling factor of respiration (H+)
Total Peripheral Resistance
Resistance as blood passes by walls. Constriction of blood vessesls increases this, dilation of blood vessels decreases this; blood viscosity, the thicker the greater this value.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal tidal volume exhalation
Exercise (Blood Pressure)
effects blood pressure through the sympathetic nervous system by increasing heart rate, which increase cardiac output, which increase blood pressure
causes muscles to produce more CO2, which causes the chemoreceptors to sense a change in the H+ concentration which causes and increase in respiration
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
What makes up the GI Tract, in order?
salivary glands (parotid, sublingual, submandibular), gall bladder, liver, pancreas
proteins, specific substrate, help regulate temperature and pH, are denatured by extreme heat
measures relative acidity or alkalinity, based on concentration of hydrogen ions, changes with digestive tract
Salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase
What two enzymes break down carbs? (in order of their appearance in digestion)
fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol; composed of C, H, O and sometimes P; glycerol and fatty acids; good storage molecules; serve as structural components
large protein molecules produced by body cells. They are biological catalysts; they increase the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product.
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