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39 terms

Anatomy 2 Lab Practical

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Baroreceptors
sense pressure changes in vessles, send afferent messages to the medulla oblongata, regulate blood pressure
Medulla Oblongata
sends efferent signals to the peripheral blood vessels and heart through vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Chemoreceptors
Sense changes in CO2, O2 and H+; CO2 is converted to H+ via bicarbonate which changes blood pH; dominant controlling factor of respiration (H+)
Blood Pressure Formula
CO x TPR = BP
Blood pressure
caridac output times total periphreal resistance
Cardiac Output (CO)
Blood pumped by the heart per minute
Total Peripheral Resistance
Resistance as blood passes by walls. Constriction of blood vessesls increases this, dilation of blood vessels decreases this; blood viscosity, the thicker the greater this value.
Sphygmomanometer
measures systolic over diastolic. Used to calculate blood pressure
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Total amount of air the lungs can hold
Residual volume (RV)
amount of air left in lungs after max expiration
Vital Capacity (VC)
amount of air you can maximally expire after a maximal inspiration
Tidal Volume (TV)
air actually breathed in normal breathing
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal tidal volume exhalation
Exercise (Blood Pressure)
effects blood pressure through the sympathetic nervous system by increasing heart rate, which increase cardiac output, which increase blood pressure
Exercise (Respiration)
causes muscles to produce more CO2, which causes the chemoreceptors to sense a change in the H+ concentration which causes and increase in respiration
Bile
secreted by the liver; aids in lipid digestion
GI Tract
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
What makes up the GI Tract, in order?
Accessory organs
salivary glands (parotid, sublingual, submandibular), gall bladder, liver, pancreas
Enzymes
proteins, specific substrate, help regulate temperature and pH, are denatured by extreme heat
pH
measures relative acidity or alkalinity, based on concentration of hydrogen ions, changes with digestive tract
6.75
pH in mouth
2.0
pH in stomach
8.0
pH in small intestine
Carbohydrates
composed of C, H and O; sugars and starches
Salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase
What two enzymes break down carbs? (in order of their appearance in digestion)
Salivary amylase
enzyme that begins carb digestion in mouth
pancreatic amylase
enzyme that breaks down carbs in the small intestine
Lipids
fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol; composed of C, H, O and sometimes P; glycerol and fatty acids; good storage molecules; serve as structural components
Emulsification and the release of pancreatic lipase
What are the two steps of lipid digestion?
Proteins
make up muscle tissue and enzymes; composed of 20 amino acids;
Pepsin and Trypsin
What enzymes are responsible for the digestion of proteins?
Trypsin
found in small intestine; works in an alkaline environment (pH 8-11)
Pepsin
found in the stomach; works in an acidic environment (pH of 2)
enzymes
large protein molecules produced by body cells. They are biological catalysts; they increase the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product.
substrates
molecules upon which specific enzymes act. Organic foods that are broken down by enzymes
salivary amylase
the enzyme produced by the salivary glands and secreted into the mouth
pancreatic lipase
hydrolyzes fats and oils to their component monoglycerides and 2 fatty acids