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crimes that have serious consequences for the victim and criminal; such as murder, rape, arson, and robbery
offenses that aren't as serious and usually are punishable with a fine or jail sentence of lees than a year; such as vandalism and stealing
when a civil case goes to court; legal action whereby a person or group sues to collect damages for some harm that is done
applies to that branch of law dealing with the formation, construction, and interpretation of constitutions. They decide the limits of government's power and the rights of the individual.
the rules and regulations that the executive branch must make to carry out its job
a law written by a legislative branch of government. They regulate our behavior and are the source of many of the rights and benefits we take for granted
Writ of habeas corpus
requires an official of who has arrested someone to bring that person to court and explain why they are being held
Bills of attainder
a law that punishes a person accused of a crime without a trail or fair hearing in court
Ex post facto law
an law that would allow a person to be punished for an action that was not against the law when it was committed
Due process of law
government may not take our lives, liberty, or property except according to the proper exercise of law
a person who is tried for a crime and found not guilty may not be placed in put at risk of criminal penalty a second time by being retried for the same crime
group of 12 to 23 citizens that hears evidence presented by a prosecutor; decides whether there is enough evidence to indicate that the accused has committed a crime
reaction to the charges; will either admit to charges or offer reasons the defendant is not responsible for the injuries the plaintiff is making
opportunity to check facts and to gather evidence by questioning the other party and possible witness
each side is given the opportunity to explain its side of the dispute and must listen to the other side; a mediator will help the two sides find a solution
a professional arbitrator who acts like a judge by reviewing the case and resolving the dispute
preponderance of the evidence
in a civil case the plaintiff has to present only enough to convince the judge or jury that the defendant was more likely than not was responsible for the incident that caused the damages/injuries
the party who starts the legal proceedings against another party for a violation of the law
police officers do this if they have witnessed a crime, a complaint has been filed, or a judge has made an arrest warrant; a person is charged with a crime
suspects can refuse to answer police questions and can have a lawyer during questioning
the person doesn't admit to guilt but will not fight the prosecutions case; effect is the same as guilty plea
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