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89 terms

Invertebrates Unit

flashcards based on the review for the invertebrates test at EHS in spring 2011
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cephalization
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body
hermaphrodite
individual that has both male and female reproductive organs
coelom
a body cavity between the germ layers, contains internal organs
open circulation
blood doesn't remain only in blood vessels; it is pumped, but doesn't go back to the heart
closed circulation
circulatory system that keeps blood inside a network of blood vessels
germ layer
one of the primary tissues of the embryo - becomes specialized as the animal grows and develops
endoderm
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
mesoderm
the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
ectoderm
the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
dorsal
the back or spine side of an animal
ventral
the front or stomach side of an animal
porifera
sponges
spicules
The bodies of many sponges have sharp structures called ________ that provide support and protection
spongin
flexible, structural protein fibers in softer sponges
osculum
the large opening usually on top of sponge through which filtered water is expelled
choanocyte
specialized cell in sponges that uses a flagellum to move a steady current of water through the sponge
pore
any small opening in the skin or outer surface of an animal
sessile
doesn't move
do sponges have a nervous system?
no!
nematocyte
An organelle on a Cnidarian that has coiled spring w/ barbs and toxins - used to catch and stun prey
polyp
sessile stage of the life cycle of a cnidarian that has a tube shaped body and tentacles - anemones and coral stay in this stage
medusa
motile stage of the life cycle of a cnidarian that has a bell-shaped body - jellyfish
filter feeder
organism that filters small particles from water to get its food (that's a clam in the picture)
eyespots
Located near the cerebral ganglia, planarians use this organ to sense the intensity and direction of light
flame cells
specialized cells that remove excess water from the body (flatworms)
platyhelminthes
flatworms - like tapeworms and turbellarians
nematoda
roundworms - like hookworms. Some cause trichinosis
annelida
segmented worms - like earthworms
pharynx
opening at the anterior (front) end of the digestive canal. the way that flatworms get their food into the body
the simplest invertebrate to have a mouth AND an anus
roundworms
arthropods
invertebrates that have external skeletons, joint appendages, and segmented bodies
why must a terrestrial annelid have moist skin?
moist skin helps it breathe - earthworms use their skin for respiration
most primitive animal with a pharynx
planarians
clitellum
a ring on an annelid's body that holds sperm and eggs during and after fertilization
cephalopoda
means head foot - squids & octopuses
gastropoda
means stomach foot - snails and slugs
bivalve
means two shells - a mollusk that has two shells held together by hinges and strong muscles
does a squid have a closed- or open- circulatory system?
closed! It needs to be able to pump blood back to the heart and around in order to move lots of O2 when it is swimming
does a clam have a closed or open circulatory system?
open! Clams are sessile filter feeders. They don't move much, so they don't need to move oxygen around their bodies fast.
soft bodied animals with external or internal shells
mollusks!
uniramia
subphylum of arthropods including insects like butterflies, beetles, bees, and ants
crustacea
subphylum of arthropoda; crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and shrimp
chelicerata
subphylum of arthropoda that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks, and horseshoe crabs
chelicerae
pair of mouthparts in chelicerates that contain fangs and are used to stab and paralyze prey (they're black in this picture)
mandibles
jawlike mouth parts in all crustaceans and some uniramia
subphylum of arthropods that has many different kinds of mouth parts
uniramia (insects)
malphighian tubules
Spiders & insects use them to excrete ammonia waste
jointed appendage
structure, such as a leg or antenna, that extends from the body wall and has joints where it bends
molting
process that arthropods use to allow growth - shedding small shells and growing into larger soft shells
drawbacks of molting
animal is vulnerable while the new shell is still soft
exoskeleton
hard protective structure developed outside the body, as the shell of a lobster
stomach side of an animal
ventral
back side of an animal
dorsal
head end of an animal
anterior
tail end of an animal
posterior
stinging cell in cnidarians
nematocyst
large cavity used for cnidarian digestion
gastrovascular cavity
spicules
make up the skeleton of hard sponges
worm phylum WITHOUT two openings to the digestive system
flatworms/platyhelminthes
pore-bearers (pore-carriers)
porifera - sponges
simplest animal with a pharynx
flatworms
means stomach-foot
gastropod
means head-foot
cephalopod
means two shells
bivalves
includes squid and octopus
cephalopod
some of these filter-feed
bivalves (clams do it)
why a squid needs a closed circulatory system
uses lots of oxygen when it swims; needs to move blood fast
phylum with internal OR external shells
mollusks
clusters of nerve cells
ganglia
the two phyla with radial symmetry
cnidarians and echinoderms
concentration of nerve cells at the head of the body
cephalization
fluid-filled body cavity
coelom
the way crustaceans breathe
gills
this phylum's animals use stinging tentacles
cnidarians
symmetry with right and left sides
bilateral symmetry
symmetry repeated around a center point
radial symmetry
the mollusk structure used as a digging tool in clams and as tentacles in squids
the foot
the phylum with no symmetry
porifera
If this animal has a digestive tract and a shell and a closed circulatory system it is a(n)...
mollusk
If this animal has an exoskeleton it is a(n)...
arthropod
this removes liquid waste from planaria
flame cells
this removes liquid waste from some terrestrial arthropods
malphighian tubules
cephalothorax and abdomen are in which group(s) of arthropods?
crustaceans and chelicerates (spiders etc)
head, thorax and abdomen are in which group(s) of arthropods?
uniramians (insects)
crawfish are in this sub-phylum of arthropods
crustacea
spiders are in this sub-phylum of arthropods
chelicerates
ants are in this sub-phylum of arthropods
uniramia
sub-phylum of arthropods with a wide variety of mouth parts
uniramia (insects)
bell-shaped, motile stage in cnidarian life cycle
medusa (like jellyfish)