ap human geo- agriculture
Terms in this set (53)
deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
The production of crops for sale, crops intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
hunting and gathering
the killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance
first agricultural revolution
beginning around 12,000 years ago; achieved plant domestication (human influence on genetic modification of a plant) and animal domestication (genetic modification of an animal to make it more amenable to human control and use); began permanent settlements along fertile river valleys which moved humans from egalitarian societies (equal) to more stratified societies (unequal).
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.
the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
Farming practices diffused across the surface of the earth, central america, NW south america, west africa, SE asia
The shift of food gathering to food producing. Gatherer>grower=agricultural revolution. Chaser>herder=domestication. People could now live in one area because they didn't have to search for food. Could now make houses
Geographer from the University of California at Berkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.
evolution of crop rotation systems
farms are divided into number of fields- each field planted on a planned cycle (often of several years), nutrients restored by letting a field fallow. two field crop rotation-three field-four field by 18th century
second agricultural revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Koppen climatic classification system
Developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
In shifting cultivation spreads out production over the farming season by planting different crops in the same field
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
a strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as "the shore of the desert"
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
extensive subsistence agriculture
characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area., is self-sufficiency farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their families.
intensive commercial agriculture
Intensive farming in a commercial economy, crops have high yields and market value
extensive commercial agriculture
A crop or livestock system in which land quality or extent is more important than capital or labor inputs in determining output
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Commercial farming for milk
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Maize (corn), wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food of North America, South American, Africa, and livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice in tropical regions. , Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year
farm animals; domestic animals raised for their working ability or for their value as a source of food and other products
Confined outdoor or indoor space used to raise hundreds to thousands of domesticated livestock. Compare rangeland.
an agricultural system practiced in the mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations.
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning batering or the exchange of commodities.
Growing specialized crops such as bananas, coffee, and cacao in tropical developing countries, primarily for sale to developed countries., Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
crops that are considered nonessential - cocao, coffee, tea, tobacco
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
buildings clustered along a road, dike etc. and a narrow field behind them; Called long lot in French
circular rural settlement
Type of settlement common in Germany which includes a central open space
dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
feed as in a meadow or pasture
an administrative division of a county
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity, Popular term for introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain (rice, wheat, maize) that, with high enough inputs of fertilizer and water, can greatly increase crop yields.
a series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the market. Each link along the chain adds a certain value to the commodity, producing differing levels of wealth for the place and the people where the production occurs.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
name of the agricultural revolution we are living through now- GMOs, organic
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
The mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers.This had led to the decrease in small farms.
human growth stimulates agricultural intensification (Malthus upside-down)- population increase provides more labor for agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
the raising of plants or animals, such as fish or shellfish, in or at the bottom of the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water
approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicieds, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
suitcase farmers (hobby farmers)
farmers who move from pieces of land to another and farm for hobby
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