Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
History of Philosophy
Phil101 Test 1 UD Rogers
Terms in this set (137)
Anaximander and Anaximanes
Says water is underlying
Says fire is underlying
Hericlitus ____ underlies
Principle of motion Def.
love brings together and hate drives apart
Principle of motion is by
Anixamenes ____ underlying
Says air is underlying
First idea of atoms by
empedocles? had first idea of __
says we can't communicate
Gorgias thinks we cannot __
moral relativism philosopher
Thrasymachus = idea of ____
moral relativism def.
No absolute or objective morality.
There is no truth to moral claims
"Might is right"
Goal of life according to Socrates
Metaphysics philosopher & idea
Plato's World of the Forms:
The objects of abstract knowledge--mathematical truths, the essence of the "good", the natures of things-- really exist as perfect "blueprints" this eternal and immutable world
Aristotle matter and form combination idea
unmoved mover philosopher
fact of change
• Does the carrot blink out of being and flesh blink in? NO!
• The carrot BECOMES flesh. "Substantial" Change.
• So there must be something that persists during the change. Underlying unity.
• Foundational Conclusions: Assumptions which underlie science, and which we all accept
- There must be an underlying unity.
- the way things APPEAR does not entirely reflect the way things ARE.
- We need to analyze sense data through reason.
- And note especially the methodology.
- He begins by accepting our common understanding - X becomes Y -- , but then he attempts to analyze it critically. That's what philosophy does.
- But why would Thales pick water?
- Why water? It is everywhere and has different forms
argument that can be considered factual
indeterminate boundless philosopher
Anaximander ____ underlying
external motion "separating off" phil
Anaximander on motion for creating different things
Law of Nature
single, mechanical explanation
swirling motion phil & idea
Anaximenes says ____ accounts for differences
o Individual things themselves are distinct due to changes in quality and quantity [air expanding/contracting]
mathematician who thought world was made of mathematical entities *tangible
Who was pythagoras?
Pythagoras and form
o Numbers = limits/boundaries of things which constitutes the form
o Things are of certain nature/essence due to mathematical harmony/proportions
Everything is chaning
Phil who wanted to focus on change again
Heraclitus wanted philosophers to focus on __ again
Phil for "Order requires raitonal orderer"
people who believe god is everything and every where
Characteristics of the One
o There is no change at all
o Everything is one and change doesn't exist
o No discreet individuals
o All one, immutable, spherical, homogenous[can't have more here and less there], plenum (plenty/fullness), limited [lacking limits is an imperfection]
o Don't ask what is outside it!
o Spherical plenum
o Everlasting: Can't come into being or change at all.
o Motionless: No empty space to move through.
o Homogenous: Can't have more here and less there.
o Limited: Lacking limits is an imperfection. It's a spherical plenum.
Parmenides Argument (Premises)
o Premise 1: thought & being = same aka "Logic reflects ontology"
The way we have to think about things are the way things have to be and vice versa
• Ex: Round square=impossible
o Premise 2: You can't think nothing
o Premise 3: due to 1 and 2, "nothing" doesn't exist
o Conclusion: there is no change, it is all the One
Why no change according to parmenides?
o To change is to come into being and pass out of being...but if something comes into being it must come out of NOTHING! If it goes out of being it must go into NOTHING!
o But there's NO NOTHING! So change doesn't happen.
o To change is to come into being but that means nothing was originally there which can't be the case
why no motion according to parmenidies
o Why no motion?
o There would have to be nothingness for things to move into
Why no discrete individuals according to parmenidies?
o Between two separate things there would need to be nothing which doesn't exist
o (if air different densities than nothing would have to be missed in which doesn't exist)
o Time period disliked infinity so the sphere was just the sphere, ignore everything else
Forever and always the sphere will be there because nothing couldn't have been there or be there eventually
Why is the One homogeneous and plenum?
o More stuff here and less stuff there, means less of nothing here and more of nothing there.
o Must be a perfect "fullness" since there can't be any "emptiness" i.e. nothing.
What about what we experience (according to parmenidies?)
o Our senses lie and reality is logical the One
o Well, it is a radical violation of what our senses tell us, but that's tough. Reason has the final word.
What two things did Zeno try to prove?
Who tried to prove his teacher wasn't crazy and that sense deceive?
Who usedand what is the millet seed example?
o Trying to prove senses deceive
Millet seed ex with paper
• All paper made noise but one piece didn't, so really one piece did or all of them didn't
• e.g. the millet seed(s). 1 makes no sound, a bushel does make a sound. But N x 0 is just 0.
o Achilles and the tortoise
Infinite actions in finite time
o Space and motion are paradoxical
His targets here are the Pythagoreans who'd said that space consists of an infinite number of points.
o Line has infinite points
having change and not coming into/passing out of being
Empedocles' Response to Parmenides
o There is change, but no real coming into or going out of being.
• Objects composed of little particles (of earth, fire, water, air) that are eternal and unchanging
o Mingling of these particles makes what we see
Empedocles' says objects are composed of ______
• Empedocles had idea of evolution
• Primitive life (like body parts) emerged from sea and couldn't survive/reproduce and then luck would allow survival and then it eventually became us
• Anaximander thought we came from fish
• The species we observe today are the result of earlier, more primitive animals, formed through random mutation. When an organism could survive it would, and would have offspring.
• (Though the "more primitive animals" are really more like body parts.)
Anaxagoras Major contributions
o First great contribution: form, nature, essence recognition
o mind separate from matter (Mind is different form and transcends matter )
who says and what is homoiomerous
anaxagoras word for meaning made of parts having the same nature as the whole
Atomists Leucippus and Democritus
The Void is the solution to ______ by _____
parmenidies' problem solution by Leucippus
The Void Characteristics
o Void: where atoms can move around, not nothing
• Empty space is not material, but it's not literally nothing... it's empty space.
• You can sort of think it. It's the space where stuff happens...now just think there's no stuff.
• Atoms and void = all there is [and motion]
Atomist Atom Characteristics
tiny, invisible particles, like Empedocles said, but not particles of the 4 elements
o Infinite void and particles
o Particles somewhat like "One": eternal, indivisible, homogenous, indestructible, (unlike the One [sphere]) comes in diff. shapes that can connect
o They form the objects of the sensible world around us.
o Atoms movement
Collide into clumps and clumps become what we see
o NOT like Anaxagoras cuz all atoms are essentially same thing (just diff. shape)
o Solved Parmenides' problem: atomosits think they solved it but there ar eprobems with atomists that we discussed (*doesn't account for essances)
Principle of Parsimony (aka Ockham's Razor)
• When offering an explanation, you should accept the simplest explanation that fits all the facts
o Debatable part= what are the "facts"
• Don't multiply entities beyond necessity.
• Accept the simplest explanation that fits all the facts.
• (Note that the Principle of Parsimony is aimed at theory construction.)
Who uses Principle of Parsimony
Atomists Principle of __
• Q: Has Parmenides' problem really been solved? Doesn't the nature, the carrotness of the carrot, still blink out of being and the fleshness of the flesh blink in?
o The Atomists Answer: All that was ever there to begin with was a certain arrangement of atoms. They just got rearranged. What we experience as sensible objects is really just atoms.
The world as we experience it seems to be an illusion projected on our minds by the atoms.
Too much reductionism?
too much reductionism, what is human thinking constituded by, how do we get morals from atoms and the void, what about essences (Atomist answer: what we experience as sensible objects are really just atoms)
The Atomists Answer: All that was ever there to begin with was a certain arrangement of atoms. They just got rearranged. What we experience as sensible objects is really just atoms.
The world as we experience it seems to be an illusion projected on our minds by the atoms
sophists Protagoras, Gorgias, Thrasymachus look at
____look at human beings
The "truth" on (a few, some, many, all) issues is subjective. Whatever seems a certain way to someone "is" that way to him, and there's no more to be said. (So there's no objective truth on these issues.)
You should doubt (a few, some, many, all) of the claims people make.
"Man is the measure of all things."
who thinks order is good, so obey laws of state and traditional religion.
1. Nothing exists
2. If something existed we couldn't comprehend it.
3. If we could comprehend it we couldn't communicate it.
words are mere symbols
why does gorgias think we cannot communicate
Thrasymachus on morals
___ believes in moral relitivism
moral relitivism def
No absolute or objective morality.
There is no truth to moral claims
• The Anthropological Argument
o Premise: Different societies believe in different values.
o Conclusion: Therefore there are no objective values.
• Two problems with the Anthropological Argument.
• 1. It's not clear that the premise is true.
• 2. Even if the premise is true, the conclusion doesn't follow. (It is a non sequitur.) Just because people happen to believe differently doesn't mean there's no truth. E.g. the shape of the earth.
The tolerance "argument" -- 60's and 70's attitude:
(Premise 1) 1960s Tolerance is good. (not really an argument)
(Premise 2) Denying objective morality will promote tolerance.
• therefore moral relativism is true (OR we ought to believe since it is benign view (good)
Has a not-so-benign philosophy but logical
Socrates against moral relativism
no evidence for moral relativism but enough to prove it false. ___ would ask if you can really commit to moral relativism in practice
socrates' goal of human life
lead a good and happy life
Why is Socrates called the wisest man in Athens?
He recognizes the limitations of his knowledge. (He knows that he doesn't know lots of stuff.)
Who: Epistemic method: The mid-wife
socrates' ___ method is the ___-wife
We do communicate...we must possess some sort of shared knowledge.
What needs to happen is that the vague and confused knowledge within needs to be drawn out and clarified.
Most especially, we need to seek beyond the individual, changing things to find...
socrates' The universal idea is
• ...the nature or essence of a thing which it shares with other members of its kind.
• What makes just just, cats cats, beauty beauty, etc
• Virtue = knowledge. Virture boils down to a kind of knowledge
• You would never knowingly do something wrong.
• Seems obviously false until you see what Socrates means by "virtue."
• Virtue=actively aimed at achieving goal of human life, which is happiness
what is happiness to socrates
Happiness= fulfilling your function , your nature as a human being
o So grasping essence is crucial
• Epistomology: you know things you did not learn through your senses
o It's wrong to torture small children for fun.
o A cat is a cat, and I know one when I see one.
o Why can't you get this info through your senses?
• Senses have a role of knowledge acquisition
o Sense give us info on particulars
*Your senses have access only to changeable things, so they cannot give you immutable truth.
What is in the World of the Forms
Immaterial, Eternal, immutable, perfect 'blueprints' of things (e.g. mathematical principles, natures)
according to plato, Things in our worlds exist and are as they are because
they participate in the Forms
World of the Forms: participation
a) Blueprint = the original, form *not physical because they are immutable and eternal
b) mirror image/reflection
c) "sharing in..."
orginials are the best
How Plato solves Parmenides' Problem
Change without any real coming into or passing out of being. The individual carrot and the individual human being may come and go, but the material particles AND THE ESSENCES (carrotness, humanness) are everlasting, because they exist in the World of the Forms.
• Sensible objects can jog our memories, and then we recover the knowledge we had innately at birth
o Innate knowledge=knowledge one is born with
• Plato - innateist (thinks we are born with knowledge)
• The real you is your soul
• Negative view of body: your body is a sort of unhappy accident, a prison for your soul
• So death is good because soul gets released from burden of body
left and right of divided lin
sensoble world and mere opinion
left of divided line
things, images, --mathematical objectts, forms
right of divided line
mere belief, imagining, --thinking, intelligence
intelligible world of divided line has
knowledge ( where in divided line)
Why do we need to grasp the form?
• 1. Allows us to distinguish the essential from the inessential.
• 2. Allows us to assess whether or not the individual is a good instance of the kind.
Form of the Forms aka Form of the Good is like a god
Plato's "god" in repbulic
parable of the cave
• Shadows Unimportant things/images
• Statues corporeal/real objects in the physical world
o Could be real science and you are looking at real objects
o Fire the physical sun
• Above ground Reality: The World of the Forms
o What the statues and shadows imitated
• The Sun The Form of the Good
• The Life of the Philosopher
He gazes upon the Form of the Good, but then feels the charitable desire to help his fellow troglodytes (cave dwellers
plato's god in Timaeus meaning architect
The Demiurge looks upon chaotic matter (That's chaotic matter at the bottom-- a.k.a. the "receptacle") and wants it to be beautiful. So, out of love, the Demiurge...
...takes the Forms as models and impresses them on the chaotic matter, creating...Our visible world -- Cats, Dogs, Horses, etc. etc
plato ring of gyges
be good with the ring of gyges because it is just good to be good
tripartite soul parts (plato)
• appetitie: desires of body
• Spirit: the part of your soul that leads to action and included pride and anger (pride and anger can be appropriste)
• Reason - should be in charge!!!
Man Write Large : The State
"cosmos" order, so the order in the smaller thing, in this case the human being, reflect the order in the larger thing, in this case the state
1. The folks who take care of the needs of the body. Artisans, farmers etc. correspond to appetite at the bottom
2. Guardians/soldiers ("Guardians" used for both of the upper levels, but we can use the term for the "mere" Guardians who are essentially soldiers) lower level Correspond to spirit that protects state.
3. Rulers (upper level Guardians, they are also soldiers, but they do more than soldiering, they rule.) Correspond to reason
Philosopher-King and rulers decide what's to be done...totalitarian...not democratic! (Who should be the captain of the ship?)
• A key question in Political Philosophy: What justifies the authority of the government? That is, why do the rulers get to do stuff that us private citizens don't? plato's answer:
the Philosopher-King is the best and has gazed upon the Form of the Good
• In the literal sense of Rule by the Best.
• The Philosopher and his intellectual buddies know best, so they get to run things.
• Not hereditary! Children go into the class for which they are naturally suited.
The Life of the Guardians/Rulers
no private property, no families, yes breeding lottery
The Decline of the Ideal State
Aristocracy to timocracy to oligarchy to decmocracy to tyranny
Aristocracy to timocracy
• Somehow some folks who care more about honor get to be in charge so it is ok but not as good according to Plato
timocracy to oligarchy
rich rule: • (Some of the soldiers decide they want to amass wealth and they care most about doing that.)
oligarchy to democracy
sounds good but inevitably degenerate into tyranny
democracy to tyranny
anarchy (mob rule) whel all want freedom so tyranny:• It's the descent into mob rule that opens the way for tyranny.
• A charismatic speaker who is also completely ruthless will proclaim himself the "people's hero".
• The "people's hero" foments class warfare.
• The P.H. needs a body guard.
• Kill or exile the opposition. (All the better folks.)
• The P.H. must keep the state at war.
• Is there peace?
• Are the people free?
• It is miserable. And who is the least free and most miserable person in the tyrannical state?
• "People's hero" works to keep power
the disordered soul
When Reason not guiding soul, then appetite takes over soul then you become addict so you are not free you become "slave to the habbit" aka addict
• If reason loses control, then appetite takes over.
• You become an addict.
• Are you free? Are you happy? No!!!
• So in order to be happy, keep reason in control, that is, be just.
aristotle _____ Plato's doctrine of the World of the Forms
aristotle rejects _____
Aristotle's 3 criticisms of the World of the Forms
• The World of the Forms violates the principle of parsimony.
o The Principle of Parsimony: Accept the simplest explanation that fits all the facts. Don't multiply entities beyond necessity.
• "Participation" is a meaningless term.
• The World of the Forms doesn't explain - and even conflicts with -- CHANGE!
prime matter (Aristotle)
• underlies all matter a sort of "pure potentiality" to receive forms (according to Aristotle) ]
primate matter characteristics
*allows for substantial change
*have always and will always exist
four causes of a corporeal object/physical substances
• Matter - What it's made of
• Form - The nature of the thing.
• Agent - What took action to bring the thing into being. (aka efficient")
• Final - The purpose of the thing.
we know form by abstraction
• Get data through the senses, but then the rational mind is capable of "picking out" the essential, and setting aside the inessential
2 aspects of intellect involved in abstraction
passive (receives data from senses)
active (does work to produce form in the intellect)
• In at least one text Aristotle suggests that the active intellect is separate from the body, and survives the death of the body. HOWEVER
• ...He also says that this active intellect is one and the same for ALL of us! so
... maybe some of the thinking part survives...and preexisted?...but it may not be an aspect of you as an individual
aristotle key question
why do things chage
Proof for the Unmoved Mover
1. Things are in motion (potential to actual)
2. Nothing can cause its own motion
3. Motion must be caused by something already actual (In all cases but one, that will be something already actually in motion, besides unmoved mover)
4. There cannot be an infinite series of moved movers
Why no infinite series?
• Didn't we say you have an infinite number of ancestors?
• But we're not talking about a temporal causal chain. (You're parents are not the cause of you moving to actualize your potentials.) We're talking about a "chain" of a certain kind of causal dependence.
• So consider the "mirror analogy".
• Suppose you wonder where a light in the sky comes from, and I tell you that is has been reflected off a mirror. Do you know where the light came fromm?
• Suppose that mirror is reflecting another mirror? Now do you know where the light came from?
• Suppose there's an infinite series of mirrors...will that give you light?
• An infinite series doesn't provide an explanation
o You need a source
o You need something that can generate light without having first received it.
• A moved mover can be thought of as a "motion mirror". It can pass the motion (change) along, once it's got it. But a series of moved movers, even an infinite series, cannot ...
...explain where the motion comes from. You need a source of motion
The Unmoved Mover
• How could something not moving cause motion in other things?
o Her ex: samosas bag of food when hungry so someone jumped up to get the food so the samosas made you move when they didn't move
• As a final cause!
o Everything moves and changes to actualize its potentials because everything wants to "imitate perfection" which is the unmoved mover
Unmoved mover is perfect actualization so everything moves to be like unmoved mover
o That is, things strive to actualize their potentials, in imitation of the Unmoved Mover, which is perfect actuality.
The Unmoved Mover is sometimes called the "Prime" or
What does the Unmoved Mover do?
-The Unmoved Mover is thinking about the perfect thing, it is Thought Thinking Itself
according to aristotle, The purpose of human existence
happiness...actualizing your nature...flourishing as a human being (i.e. pursuing your finalcause). "Natural Law" ethics.
• Aristotle's ethics are__since tehy apply to all human beings
aritstotle's ____ are universal
SO What kinds of things are we according to aristotle
• We are rational, social, animals...
• with cetian innate desires, which are to be pursued. This set of desires is part of what constitutes our natures.
• With all other things, we share the desire (or something like it) to survive
• With other gendered animals, we share the desire for procreation.
• With other social animals, we share the desire for society... we desire human society.
So Aristotle's Ethics is not selfish!
• Your happiness is inextricably tied to the well-being of those around you.
Uniquely human desires
• "All men by nature desire to know." Being rational is what sets us apart from other animals.
• And being rationale, we have to figure out the best way to satisfy our desires. We cannot just act on instinct.
The Golden Mean
• General rule: Satisfy the desire, but in the right way, that is with moderation. Not too much, not too little.
• Goal to flourish / be happy (same idea)
• Learn by doing. Have to develop the habit of moderation
• Importance of education from early childhood
• Kid has to practice under guidance of someone who knows how do it
• Thinks the nature (innate desires) has to be nurtured
o Vices developed over time
• "Virtue ethics" Goal is to develop good habits, i.e. virtuous character
according to aristotle Ultimately best activity is
• Contemplation of the best thing, the Unmoved Mover
• The state is a natural institution Grows naturally out of the nature of human beings. You cannot flourish as a human being outside of a state.
o As norm in ancient Greece, state like small city state
• Unlike modern "contract" theories, where the thought is that the citizens have chosen to be members of the state.
• The State is prior to the individual and to the family, in the sense that it exists before them and is necessary for their flouring, but what justifies authority of government?
Justifies Authority of Government
• The purpose of the state is to promote the good life for the individual.
• The purpose of the government is to promote the flourishing of the individual. (And that includes the well-being of the family and the whole society.)
• So if the government isn't fulfilling its purpose, it does not have the authority to govern.
• So if the government isn't fulfilling its purpose, it does not have the authority to govern
the good state charqacteristics
• NO UTOPIA
• (In that the past is infinite, if Utopia were possible, it would have been tried, and we'd know about it.)
the good state govs
1. Monarchy (one)
2. Aristocracy (few)
3. Polity (many)
law-abiding democracy...and it's possible. (it's actually the best IF all the citizens are well-educated in the business of governing and they take turns governing)
according to aristotle Ultimately best activity is
• Contemplation of the best thing, the Unmoved Mover
Sets found in the same folder
PHIL 302 Q.1
PHIL 302 Q.1
Sets with similar terms
Philosophy 101 w/ Rogers
Philosophy: Plato and Aristotle
Philosophy 1301 Exam 1
Other sets by this creator
Philosophy 101 w/ Rogers
Phil 101 Exam 1
Philosophy 101 Exam 4/final
Other Quizlet sets
Theology 1st Semester Final Review
the epic most epicest reality quest study guide EV…