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Terms in this set (62)
What are any substance that the immune system recognizes as foreign?
What are usually large complex proteins, also known as a synonym for infection?
When activated by an antigen they make clones (divide) and become either B memory or plasma cells?
What cells continue to divide after an initial exposure to an antigen?
B memory cells
Because the B memory cells are already present, at subsequent exposure to "their" antigen, they will be able to mount a ________, stronger, more long-lasting response.
What cells are are also cells from division of a B lymphocyte, also secretes antibodies?
What are synonyms for antibody?
Immunoglobulin and Gamma Globulin
What synonym for antibody means "antibodies in blood"?
What are proteins released by plasma cells that inactivate antigens?
What are antibodies that block the site of antigens?
What is the clumping of foreign cells called?
What is the clumping of toxins, an example is bee toxins?
Agglutination and Precipitation both cause clumping of the antigen and attract __________________?
When antibodies bind to antigens they activate _____________ ____________that can lyse antigens such as bacteria.
__________ are proteins- chains of amino acids.
At the end of each chain is a variable region that binds to a specific antigen, what is this region called?
The rest of the antibody, called the ____________ region, determines its class.
During cell division of B lymphocytes _________ __________ of DNA- shuffling of the DNA code for antibody proteins - makes it possible to make a tremendous number of different antibodies from a smaller number of genes.
What are the largest antibodies and the first antibodies made in response to infection?
What antibodie is a "good indication of a new infection"?
What are the most common antibodies?
What antibodies are found in secretions such as saliva, sweat, and milk?
What antibodies does a nursing baby receive from its mother which offer some protection that the still immature immune system may not be able to provide?
What antibodies bind to leukocytes called basophils and induce secretion of histamines when the IgE is bound to an antigen?
What are the antibodies of allergic reactions?
What does MHC stand for?
Major Histocompatibility Complex
What proteins are the identifying proteins that most cells of the body present in their membranes so that white blood cells do not attack them?
Most cells of the body, including immune cells, present _______________proteins.
Red blood cells do not present ______ and, consequently, blood transfusions are much more practical than organ transplants.
If ______ proteins are foreign, immune cells respond as they would to an infection.
What do organ transplants require?
Suppression of the immune system
What are grafts from another person and require immune suppression?
What is a graft from another part of your own body that does not require immune suppression?
What lymphocytes remove virus-infected cells and cancer cells?
Viruses decrease the MHC in a cell's membrane in an attempt to evade the ______________ immune system.
What lymphocytes recognize and target low levels of MHC?
What is programmed cell death?
What lymphocyte can induce programmed cell death, apoptosis?
What are chemicals secreted by T helper cells that stimulate other immune cells to perform?
What helps macrophages to enter the respiratory burst, a phase where they use oxygen to make toxins like hydrogen peroxide?
T helper lymphocytes
What helps activated B lymphocytes (those that are bound to an antigen)form clones (copies)?
T helper lymphocytes
What helps T cytotoxic cells multiply (with the help of dendritic cells)?
What lymphocytes can only work with certain white blood cells that are antigen presenting?
What lymphocyte releases interleukins when they bind to the combination of MHC and antigen in the cell membrane of antigen-presenting cells?
What are these examples of,Macrophages, B lymphocytes, and dendritic cells?
What cells ingest antigen, process antigen, and then put some of the antigen plus their own MHC in their cell membrane?
What is the communication link between T helper and T cytotoxic (because T cytotoxic is not an antigen-presenting cell).
What cells engulf an infected cell and then present their MHC plus antigen to both a T helper and a T cytotoxic?
With the help of the ________ _________, the T helper releases interleukins that stimulate the T cytotoxic to divide.
The first encounter with an allergen produces no symptoms, but an unusually large number of _______ antibodies are produced.
Excessive IgE antibodies bind to _________.
The first exposure to an allergen with no symptoms, but an unusually large number of IgE antibodies is called?
On the subsequent exposures, the antigen binds to IgE and basophils release huge amounts of ________________?
What are diseases where the immune system attacks self-proteins?
What is the autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks the myelin sheath of nerves?
What is an autoimmune disease of the joints?
What is an autoimmune disease where the immune system destroys beta cells of the pancreas?
Type I diabetes mellitus
Antigens in the environment may resemble __________-_________proteins leading to autoimmune disease.
What are these examples of Hapten, Trauma, Mutations?
What is a non-antigenic protein in the environment that combines with a self-protein and becomes an antigen?
What releases new proteins from areas normally isolated from the immune system such as the testes and brain?
What may occur in dividing cells causing self-proteins to appear foreign?
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