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Chapter 12.

Advice and consent

The power of the Senate to consult and approve the presidents treaties and appointments.

Appointment power

Power of the president to appoint office positions.


The secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government. Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate.

Kitchen cabinet

an inner circle of unofficial advisers to the president

Civil service

Dedicating your time to serving as a public official.

Emergency power

During a war, depression, etc., the president can pass legislation and suspend some government functions in order to pass necessary programs more quickly.

Executive agreement

An agreement between the president and another country, which has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senates "advice and consent."

Executive order

like a law, but doesn't require Congressional approval.

Executive privilege

A claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president.


The president's constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress. A presidential veto may be over-ridden with a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress

Pocket veto

A presidential veto of legislation wherein the president takes no formal action on a bill. If Congress adjourns within ten days of passing a bill, and the president does not sign it, the bill is considered to be vetoed.

Line item veto

The power to veto certain items from a bill without vetoing the entire thing. (ruled unconstitutional)

Expressed powers

The notion that the constitution grants to the Federal Government only those powers specifically named in its text

Inherent powers

Powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the constitution but are inferred from it.

Roles (a bunch)

Roles of the president-all explained in the ID's. His roles as commander-in-chief, judicial roles, etc.


National Security Council-the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisers and cabinet officials.


When the president forgives a single person's crime/penalty


Forgives a group of people who have been guilty of a specific crime (Draft Dodgers)


President postpones/delays a court sentence


President removes/reduces the punishment sentenced by a court. also called clemency

Twelfth Amendment

President and Vice President are elected separately.

Twenty Second Amendment

Limits the president's term to 2 years

Twenty Third Amendment

Gives Washington D.C. 3 electoral votes.

Twenty Fifth Amendment

Set up line of succession for the president.

War Powers Act

President can send soldiers anywhere without congressional approval. (But must notify congress within 48 hours and Congress can remove troops after 60 days

Other offices

They report directly to the president and perform staff services but are not in the white house. Unlike white house
staff decisions, the senate must approve all appointments.
* Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
* Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
* Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
* Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

presidential rating

It is a system of rating presidents on values, morals, and other aspects.

President's popularity

It is highest right after the President is elected, during the honeymoon phase, and then declines. It is almost always lower in a president's second term than his first.


To charge a government official (president or otherwise) with "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors" and bring him or her before congress to determine guilt.

Lame duck

the end of session of Congress where legislation typically doesn't get passed

Ad hoc style

Task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends and advisers deal directly with the president.

Circular style

Cabinet Secretaries and assistants report directly to the president, everyone else reports directly to them.

Pyramid style

Most assistants report through a hierarchy to a chief of staff, who then deals directly with the president.

Vice President

his is whats in the notes under the VP heading:
* Purposes of VP: to strengthen the ticket
* Views on VP: that his/her job is useless
* Jobs of VP: preside over Senate (tie breaker) and next in line to be President

Electoral College

A number of people equal to the number of senators from each state. They cast a ballot 6 weeks after elections to determine the presidency. In all but two states, the candidate with the majority in that state gets all the electoral votes from that state.

Presidential character

The personality that the president brings to the white house. The president's personality will effect the way the white house is organized and run and also the public will judge the president on their personality.

Constitutional requirements

Natural Born Citizen, 35 years old, live in the US for 14 years


Efforts by presidents to thwart congressional programs that they cannot otherwise defeat by refusing to spend the funds that Congress appropriate for them. Congress placed limits on this in the Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974

Pay and benefits

The president makes $400,000 a year with an additional expense account of $50,000, $100,000 in travel expenses, a free house (the white house), A staff of 400-500 people, A place in the country (Camp David), A personal Aircraft (Air Force 1), a fine chef, and a pension equal to the pay of a cabinet member.

Insiders and Outsiders

the "beltway", people who live inside and people who live outside, outsiders always say "going to clean up the mess in Washington"


Term used to describe the state of affairs when the executive and legislative branches cannot agree on major legislation and neither side will compromise.

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