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Chapter Five Quiz (Key Terms 96-117)
Terms in this set (22)
Writs of Assistance
Allowed England to search colonists' ships and other private property without an individual warrant, as long as it was for the suspicion of smuggling.
Sugar Act 1764
Was the first act passed after the French and Indian war to pay for troops stationed in the northern Colonies. Duties on molasses or sugar imported by the colonies. James Otis felt that these taxes where unfair and hurt colonial business. Lead to boycotts.
Stamp Act 1765
Primary purpose was to raise revenue to support British troops stationed in the northern Colonies. Required colonists to pay for an official stamp, or seal, for many paper items. Lead to the formation of the Stamp Act Congress which challenged the constitutionality of the Stamp Act. Debate was provoked over the issue, "no taxation without representation"
American Revolutionary leader and patriot. Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence. An organizer for the Boston Tea Party. He signed the Declaration of Independence.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence, which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Daughters of Liberty
An organization founded by women in 1773 that supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
Stamp Act Congress 1765
Assemblage in New York City which brought together 27 delegates from nine colonies to write a declaration, asking parliament to have the Stamp Act repealed.
Americans are Englishmen, Parliament represents Englishmen and therefore have the right to legislate for them (Regulate mercantile economy and taxing).
Declaratory Act 1766
Immediately after the repeal of the Stamp Act, Parliament stated that they had the authority to make laws in the colonies. This act was a punishment towards the colonies for the repealing of the Stamp Act.
Townshend Act 1767
Placed taxes on imported glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea to pay for military in the colonies. Boycotts were initiated and supported by the Daughters of Liberty.
Boston Massacre 1770
The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the colonists were paid low wages and the soldiers took jobs away from colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group of colonists started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers. The soldiers panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased anti-British sentiment.
Tea Act 1773
Was an act designed to benefit the British East India Company, that was about to go bankrupt. The British East India Company placed a monopoly on tea to increase profits for the Crown by bypassing the route to England and instead going straight to the colonies. This lead to the increase of tea smuggling.
Boston Tea Party 1773
This was a group of people formed by the Sons of Liberty in protest to the Tea Act. The Colonists didn't like the monopoly on tea because it prevented them to buy tea from the French. Colonists dressed as Indians and dumped 10,000 pounds worth of tea into Boston Harbor.
Coercive / Intolerable Acts 1774
These acts were Parliament's angry response to the Boston Tea Party. Boston Harbor was closed until Boston paid for the lost tea. The Massachusetts charter was canceled. Parliament hoped that this would bring back order into the colonies by making an example of Massachusetts. Lead to the establishment of the First Continental Congress.
First Continental Congress 1774
A gathering of colonial leaders that met in Philadelphia to respond to a series of laws passed by Parliament that the colonists felt had violated their "natural rights". They intended to petition Parliament and encouraged colonies to peacefully strengthen their militias. Purpose was to come up with a solution or compromise to these laws passed by Parliament.
Battle of Lexington and Concord 1775
General Thomas Gage decided he needed to take away the militia's weapons stored at Concord. 70 colonists met the British army on the village green at Lexington. The British win and move to Concord. Paul Revere and William Dawes raced through the countryside sounding the alarm.
Second Continental Congress 1775-1781
They organized the Continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence.
Olive Branch Petition 1775
The colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act, forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Tom Paine, "Common Sense" 1776
"Common Sense" was a political pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. This pamphlet was a strongly worded call for independence from Great Britain. Paine opposed monarchy and strongly favored republican government.
Declaration of Independence 1776
The authors of the Declaration of Independence used the philosophy of natural rights, derived from the writings of John Locke. The authors appealed to the sympathies of the English people. They accused George III of tyranny.
Tories / Loyalists
These were American colonists (merchants with ties to England, royal officers) who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution. They remained loyal to Britain during the Revolutionary War.
Whigs / Patriots
These were American colonists that fought against the British during the Revolutionary War because they believed that they should be independent from Britain.
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