USHAP Fluency Facts
Fluency Facts for AP US History Exam 2014-2015 * = Extra term, not a fluency fact, but good to know
Terms in this set (144)
Who: Spanish Lords, Native Americans
Where: Spanish Colonies
What: Native Americans did work for Spanish Lords in exchange for protection, although this protection was rarely provided by the Spanish lords
Why: The beginning of exploitation of Native Americans in the colonies and the beginning of an increase of Native Americans in the work force of the colonies.
Who: London investors, joint-stock company, colonists.
What: The company sent a group of 100 men to settle the Mid-Atlantic region of North America in the hopes of finding gold.
Where: Jamestown, Virginia.
Why: The Virginia Company was the first permanent English settlement in North America.
Who: Puritans and hired men
Where: Plymouth, Massachusetts
What: Used to keep the peace between the separatist families and the hired men in the colony
Why: The first document of self-government in North America.
Frame of Government
Who: William Penn
What: Penn's constitution for Pennsylvania that allowed for civil liberties, religious freedom, and elected representation. Also attempted to deal fairly with the native population.
Why: It will be a model for effectively forming a government for future Americans. It will also allow for Pennsylvania to flourish as a colony economically.
King Philip's War
Who: English settlers, King Philip.
Where: Plymouth and later all of New England.
What: conflict that was sparked by English encroachments on native lands.
Why: one of the most destructive wars in American history, lead to continued removal of native population as the colonists increased their demands for territory.
Who: Iroquois confederacy, New York colonists
Where: New York
What: An alliance between the Iroquois confederacy and the colony of New York that sought to establish Iroquois dominance over all other tribes.
Why: Demonstrated how the tribes worked against each other in the case of King Philip's war. Put New York in an economically and politically dominant position among the other colonies.
Who: Spanish authority, indigenous laborers, Pope
What: An uprising of several pueblos against Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Where: Modern-day Santa Fe, New Mexico
Why: The Pueblo Revolt was the most successful uprising against Spanish authority in the New World. Spain was unable to reclaim its New Mexico colony for nearly 16 years.
Who: Nathaniel Bacon
Where: the Chesapeake, Virginia
What: Violent conflict in Virginia beginning with settlers attacks on Indians but culminating in a rebellion led by Bacon against Virginia's government. Governor Berkeley attempted to stop the indiscriminate murder of natives which angered Bacon and his followers so they pillaged and burned Jamestown in protest
Why: The rebellion signaled a developing conflict between frontier districts such as Bacon's and the more established coastal region, where the "Indian problem" had long since been settled
Who: Parliament, colonists
Where: American Colonies
What: Series of laws restricting use of foreign ships for trade beetween Britain & colonies to tighten control of trade to American Colonies; Early form of mercantilism
Why: Created resentment in the colonies that would ultimately lead to the American Revolution
Who: John Locke: Natural rights, social contract
What: Intellectual movement stressing the importance and existence of discoverable natural laws and the use of reasoning
When: 18th century
Where: Western Europe, England, New England colonies
Why: The ideas were promoted in colleges such as Yale and Harvard, also because of the relatively high literacy rate in the colonies (especially New England) the enlightenment ideas will spread. This will be one of the intellectual reasons for the American Revolution. Will also lead Puritans to question predestination.
Who: George Whitefield, evangelicals, New Lights, Old Lights
What: Widespread colonial revival of religion. Building on the local revival strategies of preachers in order to increase church membership (especially with young people).
When: 1738, early 18th century
Where: New England, the colonies
Why: Reinvigorated society with calls for piety and purity. Will lead to conflict in some branches. Although spread out and not unified, it was one of the first national events in American history. Allowed people to question their leaders, which will serve them in the American Revolution.
Benjamin Franklin's Plan of Union
Who: Benjamin Franklin
What: Plan calling for an inter-colonial union to manage defense nd Indian affairs. The plan was rejected by participants at the Albany Congress.
Where: The Albany Conference, Albany New York
Why: The plan's rejection will continue the colonies' attitude of separate governments and interests. It will create a challenge for the colonists when they try to unify in reaction to British policies in the buildup to the American Revolution.
French and Indian war
Who: French, Natives, British,Colonists, William Pitt
What: The last of the Anglo-French colonial wars and the first in which fighting began in North America. The war ended in France's defeat. Prime minister Pitt subsidized the war effort. Ended with the Treaty of Paris
Where: Nova Scotia, Niagara Falls to Lake Champlain, and Ohio Country, Acadia
Why: It was the end of the French, Spanish, and English rivalry in North America that had started in the 16th century. It will also mark the beginning of the end of British control over the 13 colonies.
Who: British Parliament, American colonies
What: Law passed by Parliament to raise revenue in America by requiring taxed, stamped paper for legal documents, publications, and playing cards
Where: American colonies
Why: Passed in order to raise revenue in the colonies to help pay for the 7 years' war and the standing British army. Outraged the colonists because they felt that is was another example of "virtual representation" where the colonists had no say. Will lead early colonial leaders such as Samuel Adams and James Otis to speak out against the act and organize protests
Committees of Correspondence
Who: Patrick Henry, Benjamin Franklin
What: Committees formed in Massachusetts and other colonies in the pre-revolutionary period to keep Americans informed about British measures that would affect the colonies
Where: Boston and other towns in Massachusetts
Why: will help the colonies to unify and become the principal channel for sharing info, shaping public opinion ,and building cooperation among the colonies before the continental congress of 1774
What: AKA: The Intolerable Acts. Legislation passed by Parliament included the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, The administration of Justice Act, and the Quartering Act.
Why: Used to punish Boston residents for the Boston Tea Party. The acts will extend out to the other colonies as well. will be one of the finals straws that will lead the colonists to choose representatives to attend the Continental congress.
First Continental Congress
Who: colonial delegates: John and Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington
What: Meeting in response to the Coercive Acts. The Congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, and agreed to establish the Continental association. Hoped to avoid war and favored a policy of economic coercion.
When: September 1774
Why: The committees formed as a result of the congress served as a bridge between the old colonial administrations and the revolutionary governments organized over the next few years.
Articles of Confederation
Who: Richard Henry Lee
What: Written document setting up the loose confederation of states that comprised the first national government of the US.
When: 1776-1781 Debated 1781-1787
Where: Continental Congress: 12 colonies
Why: Opposed to a strong central government. Because of its inability to unify the country and have a strong executive branch it was eventually removed and the US constitution was established in its place with a stronger federal government. States were mainly acting as separate countries, instead of a unified country
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Where: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin
What: Legislation that prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territories and provided the model for the incorporation of future territories into the union as co-equal states.
Why: A major accomplishment of the Confederation government. Will establish the basis for new territories to become states in the union.
Who: Daniel Shay
What: an armed movement of debt-ridden farmers in western Massachusetts in the winter of 1786-1787. The rebellion created a crisis atmosphere. Class conflict
Why: conservative nationalists who were unhappy with the distribution of power between the states and national government under the Articles of Confederation would make a call to reform the government, leading to the writing of the U.S. constitution
Who: William Patterson (NJ) James Madison (VA)
Where: Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia
What: Plan proposed at the CC for creating a national bicameral legislature in which all states would be equally represented in the Senate and proportionally in the House. Also included the 3/5 Compromise
Why: Allowed for the creation of a strong national government while still providing an important role for the states
Who: Mercy Otis Warren, Rufus King, Thomas Jefferson
Where: Philadelphia, original states
Why: Believed that the constitution granted too much power to the Federal Government and would then weaken the autonomy of communities and states. Will lead to the development of the Democratic- Republican political party
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Who: Alexander Hamilton
When: Early 1790's
What: A plan created to stabilized the American economy. It consitsted of federal assumption of all debts, including state and federal debts, the chartering of the U.S. bank to help restore American credit, and an tariff on imported goods.
Why: Established the first financial system in America.
Where: US capitol
What: Basic law by Congress in 1790 which stated that the US would regulate trade and interaction with Indian tribes, Treaty became the procedure for establishing and maintaining relations.
Why: Indicated the best intentions of the Washington administration to prevent abuses of traders against Native Americans. In the 20th century, a number of Indian tribes have successfully appealed for the return of lands obtained by states or individuals in violation of this provision of the Intercourse Act.
Who: Chief justice John Jay
What: Treaty with Britain inwhich the US made major concessions to avert a war over the British seizure of American ships
Why: Represented Hamilton's idea of American neutrality. British withdrawal from American soil. Gave the British "most-favored nation" status. Because of Washington's support of the treaty, he established the precedent of "executive privilege" in matters of state. Helped to establish sovereignty over the land west of the Appalachian mountains and opened to American commerce a vast market extending from Atlantic ports to the Miss. Valley
Washington's Farwell Address
Who: George Washington
Where: Published in American Daily Advertiser
What: George Washington's final statement before leaving office that consisted of suggestions for guidelines for the U.S, such as staying away from political parties and keeping out of foreign affairs.
Why: Created a guideline for the American government to follow, although they almost immediately broke it. Washington ends up being right with most of his suggestions. Political parties led to divisions in America which influenced the Civil War, and America was pulled into WWI because America got involved with foreign affairs.
Who: Alexander Hamilton
Where: US, mostly urban areas and the east coast
What: The sharing of powers between the national government and the states
Why: One of the first parties in the political divide of the US, the other being Republicans.
Who: John Adams
Where: French foreign ministry
What: Diplomatic incident, Americans outraged by demand of the French for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats, French angry because Jay's treaty and British Favoritism
Why: strong anti-French sentiment led to Quasi-war, Federalist party took advantage of national anger to build army and pass alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition acts
Who: John Adams, Congress
What: Collective name given to four acts passed by Congress in 1798 that curtailed freedom of speech and the liberty of foreign residents in the US
Why: This will lead the Jeffersonian republicans to move to nullify federal laws that they deem unconstitutional. Increased the divide between federal power and states' rights leading to the Virginia and Kentucky resolves. The resolutions would later be used to justify the secession of the southern states at the beginning of the civil war.
Marbury v. Madison
Who: Justice John Marshall, William Marbuy, James Madison
Where: Supreme Court
What: Supreme court decision that created the precedent of judicial review by ruling unconstitutional part of the Judiciary Act of 1789
Why: President Adams appointed a bunch of "midnight judges" to newly created judgeships and other positions within the federal judiciary. Marbury sued James Madison for the judges commissions. The main issue was if the judiciary was independent of politics? set the precedent that the federal judiciary could decide what's constitutional.
Who: Congress, Thomas Jefferson
Where: Congress, foreign ports
What: Act passed by congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving any foreign port
Why: Attempted to remain neutral in the Napoleonic Wars. Decreased exports and trade, increased smuggling, increased economic depression. increased the seizing of American ships by the French, increased British sale of goods in South America. Result was a disaster for American trade.
Where: Hartford Convention
What: A constitutional, doctrine holding that a state has a legal right to declare a national law null and void within its borders
Why: First began in the Virginia and Kentucky Reslves opposing the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. Will begin talks of secession from the Union by New England States. Not treated as serious but demonstrated the growing sectional identities.
*Era of Good Feelings
Who: Federalists, Republicans, James Monroe
Where: Federal Government
What: The disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony
Why: Reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic War. The era saw a brief lull in the bitter partisan disputes that had plagued the Democratic Republican and Federalist parties.
Who: Henry Clay
What: The program of government subsidies favored by Henry Clay and his followers to promote American economic growth and protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition
Why: Demonstrated a Republican shift from agrarianism to embrace much of the Federalist program for economic development, helped yeoman farmers and merchants succeed
Who: John Quincy Adams(sec. of state), Pres. James Monroe
Where: Presented to Congress
What: Declaration that the Western Hemisphere was to be closed off to further European colonization and that the US would not interfere in the internal affairs of European Nations
Why: The hempispheric policy that the US has followed to this day, JQA's policies helped to strengthen the US, diminish Spanish influence, and contain Russian expansion
Who: Henry Clay (The Great Pacificator)
What: Sectional compromise that admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state and prohibited slavery in northern Louisiana Purchase territory 36'30
Why: Demonstrated only a temporary solution to the slavery and States' Rights issue. Addressed the need for a balance of power in the Federal Government between slave and free states.
Second Great Awakening
Who: Blacks and Whites
Where: The South
What: Religious revival in South among Blacks and Whites
Why: Allowed slaves to express a spiritual freedom that Whites could not deny. Begin Southern church role within Black community as a tool for activism
Nat Turner's Revolt
Who: Nat Turner
Where: Southampton county, Virginia
What: Uprising of slaves that resulted in the death of 55 white people.
Why: Greatly magnified southern fears of slave insurrections. Turner's murder of his owner who was regarded as a kind master and the methodical organization of his revolt deeply frightened white southerners.
Who: Freed Blacks
When: Early 1800s (pre civil war) 1830s
Where: The South
What: Laws passed by states and municipalities denying many rights of citizenship to free black people before the Civil War
Why: Basically prevented blacks from having any civil rights besides the right to own property. Demonstrated the white fear that free blacks may influence the slaves. It also disproved the basic southern equations of white equals free, and black equals slave. Non slave owning whites strongly supported black codes.
Who: John C Calhoun, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson
When: early 1830s
Where: South Carlina, sectional differences, Congress
What: Sectional crisis in the early 1830s in which a states' rights party in south carolina attempted to nullify federal law. Tariff of 1832
Why: Although the crisis began as an issue regarding the protectionist tariff in 1828 called "Tariff of Abominations" because of its favor of the north over the south, it evolved into the question over the greatest of all sectional issues: slavery. Threatend to seceded from the Union and rejected the 1832 tariff. Clay will act by making the Tariff Act of 1833. Most serious threat to national unity that the US had ever experienced.
Indian Removal Act
Who: Andrew Jackson
What: Measure that allowed state officials to override federal protection of Native Americans
Why: Appropriated funds for Native relocation, by force if necessary. Led to the forced removal of many Native American tribes, notable along the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma. Although a divisive issue in Congress, it was much less controversial than the Nullification Crisis and will lead to a growing number of women getting involved in politics.
Who: Andrew Jackson
Where: National and State banks
What: political struggle between Jackson and the supporters of the 2nd Bank of the United States.
Why: end of American system, beginning laissez-faire, emergence of two-party system
Who: Opponents of Andrew Jackson
Where: US Government
What: The name used by advocates of colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s and 1770s
Why: Harkening back to the American Revolution, the Whigs demonstrated their resistance to Jackson's policies (tyrannical). Will formalize the American Two Party system after the Bank War and will usher in William Henry Harrison as president (briefly) in 1840. Also showed that two political parties can have popular appeal among voters from all social classes and in all sections of he country.
Who: Andrew Jackson
Where: Federal Government
What: Proclamation that stipulated that only gold or silver could be used as payment for public land
Why: Jackson was surprised by the widespread use of paper money after he vetoed the 2nd Bank of the US' charter and believed that it was causing inflation. This, along with foreign investors calling in American debts, will lead to a 6 year recession
Who: Lowell, wealthy investors
When: early 1800s
Where: Northern states
What: Outcome of 3 interrelated developments: transportation, commercialization, and industrialization
Why: most fundamental change American communities will experience. Early industrialization, development of mill societies, increased mechanization, lead to cash economy, growing middle class.
Who: Party politicians, often career politicians, Democrats
Where: New York City
What: A fraternal organization of arisans that evolved into a key organization of the new mass politics
Why: Led to political corruption in return for favors, cronyism, and antagonism beetween them and reformers who wanted to help stop corruption and fix society
Seneca Falls Convention
Who: Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B Anthony
Where: upstate New York
What: The first convention for women's equality in legal rights.
Why: issued the Declaration of Sentiments that would push for women's equality. Led women to become involved in reform movements such as abolition and temperance. Sought to counteract the effects of industrialization, rapid growth, ad the influx of newcomers.
Who: Mother Ann Lee and her followers
Where: England, New York, and spread to eight states
What: Followers who preached strict celibacy and communal living.
Why: Demonstrated a desire by some to escape into Utopian societies. Oldest Utopian group. offshoot of Quakers. Strong emphasis on gender equality
Who: James G Birney
Where: New York
What: The first antislavery political party
Why: Moved abolition from a moral reform movement to politics. It will lead up to the formation of the Republican Party in the 1850s and to the Civil War.
Who: Settlers, Pioneers
When: 1840s & 1850s
Where: Trail from St.Louis to the Oregon Country
What: Overland trail of more than two thousand miles that carried American settlers from the Midwest to new settlements in Oregon, California, and Utah
Why: ~7 month journey to fertile west coast land(ex. Willamette valley) Demonstrated the need for frontier community bonds and a frontier of inclusion in the beginning and slowly progressed towards a frontier of exclusion that was similar to other american settlements
Who: President James K Polk
Where: Rio Grande River
What: War fought between Mexico and the US over control of territory in southwest North America
Why: Border dispute with Mexico and part of Polk's greater vision of American expansion and the achievement of "manifest destiny". Politically divisive with the Whigs criticizing Polk's "unnecessary war". Also showed the increasing power of the executive branch. Also showed the use of the telegraph for regular, on-the-scene reporting by representatives of the press.
Who: David Wilmot
What: The amendment which stipulated that "as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the "republic of Mexico..." neither slavery nor incoluntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory"
Why: Led to a sectional division in the US instead of a party line division. buildup to the American Civil War. could not be agreed upon.
Compromise of 1850
Who: Henry Clay (west). John C Calhoun (South), Daniel Webster (North), Stephen Douglas (Illinois Democrat)
What: Compromise that admitted CA as a free state, allowed residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide the slavery issue for themselves, ended the slave trade in DC, and passed a new fugitive slave law to enforce the constitutional provision stating that a save escaping into a free state shall be delivered back to the owner.
Why: Although it was a temporary fix to the slavery issue, it demonstrated once again that the north and south could not be reconciled.
Who: Stephen Douglas
Where: Kansas, Nebraska, Congress
What: Law passed that created the Kansas and Nebraska territories but left the question of slavery open to residents, thereby repealing the Missouri compromise
Why: Will lead to radicalism in the form of Bleeding Kansas
Where: North East
What: American Party, Anti-immigrant party formed from the wreckage of the Whig Party and some disaffected Northern Democrats.
Why: The group will later branch off into the antislavery Republican Party in 1854
Dred Scott Decision
Who: James Buchanan
What: Supreme Court
What: Supreme Court ruling in a lawsuit brought by Dred Scott, a slave demanding his freedom based on his residence in a free state, that slaves could not be US citizens and that Congress had no jurisdiction over slavery in the territories.
Why: Demonstrated the lack of federal control over the spread of slavery into non-slave states.
*John Brown's raid
Who: John Brown
Where: Harpers Ferry Virginia
What: Raid on a military arsenal with the hope of inspiring a slave uprising. Failure and led to Brown's execution
Why: Northern mourning over Browns execution demonstrated the divisiveness of the time and how he became a martyr for the abolitionist cause
Also spread fear throughout the south surrounding slave revolts and the rising northern movement against slavery.
*Confederate States of America
Who: Jefferson Davis
What: Nation proclaimed in Montgomery, Alabama, after 7 states of the lower south seceded from the U.S.
Why: strongly supported states rights and made the abolition of slavery practically impossible
What: Provided homesteads with 160 acres of free land in exchange for improving the land within five years of the grant. Must build a house and cultivate the land for a small fee
Why: Part of the Republican pledge of economic development. Revealed the Whig origins in many Repulicans and their push for commercial development, it was essentially and updated version of Clay's American system. Increased the role of the Federal Government in people's lives in a way that would not have been possible without southern secession.
Who: Abraham Lincoln
Where: Post Antietam Victory
What: Freed Slaves in states still in rebellion
Why: Not formal decree of abolition, continued process and will make way for the 13th amendment
*Special Field order 15
Who: William T. Sherman
Where: Atlantic coast
What: order in January 1865 to set aside abandoned land along the southern Atlantic coast for 40 acre giants to freed men and the loan of a mule from the Army; rescinded by President Andrew Johnson later that year.
Why: demonstrated the practical approach to helping freedmen at the end of the civil war. strongly opposed by southerners and Johnson
Who: Radical Republicans
What: name given to the period when the Republican dominated Congress controlled Reconstruction era policy
Why: Led to southern military districts, ratified the 14th amendment, and the impeachment process of Andrew Johnson when he violated the Texture of Office Act.
Who: Government (Lincoln, Johnson, Radical Republicans)
13th - 1865 - Prohibited Salvery
14th - 1868 - Established Citizenship for freed slaves.
15th - 1870 - Gauranteed the right of all qualified men, regardless of race, to vote.
Why: Periodization, marked the end of Reconstruction
Who: Southern Freedmen and plantation owners
When: Reconstruction era, late 1860s
Where: The South and southern west
What: Labor system that evolved during and after Reconstruction whereby landowners furnished laborers with a house, farm animals, and tools, and advanced credit in exchange for a share of the laborer's crops.
Why: For planters, it stabilized the workforce, for sharecroppers, they will remain a largely subordinate agricultural labor force
Who: Southern Whites, mainly small landowning farmers and well off merchants and planters
When: Reconstruction era, late 1860s
Where: The South
What: Supporters of the Southern Republican Party
Why: Looked to the Party platform for help in settling old scores with the planter elite and relief from debt and wartime devastation.
Who: Supreme Court
Where: US Supreme Court
What: Group of cases resulting in one sweeping decision by the US Supreme Court that contradicted the intent of the 14th Amendment by decreeing that most citizenship rights remained under state, not federal, control
Why: Constrained federal protection of African American civil rights
Who: disaffected Republicans
When: Early 1870s
Where: U.S. voters (North)
What: disaffected Republicans that emphasized the doctrines of classical economics
Why: movement toward the modern Republican party of small government, laissez-faire, low taxes.
Compromise of 1877
Who: Rutherford B. Hayes
What: Settling of the 1876 election that installed Hayes in the White House and gave Democrats control of all state governments in the South.
Why: ended Reconstruction in the South and eliminated a black political voice.
*Treaty of Fort Laramie
Who: Red Cloud (Sioux)
Where: Black Hills
What: Treaty that acknowledged US defeat in the Great Sioux War and supposedly guaranteed the Sioux perpetual hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana
Why: Temporary end to the Indian Wars, until gold was discovered in the Black Hills. Will eventually lead to Custer's Last Stand
Dawes Severalty Act
Who: Helen Hunt Jackson, Hollow Horn Bear (Sioux)
What: Law terminating tribal ownership of land and allotting some parcels of land to individual Indians with the remainder opened for white settlement
Why: Undermined tribal sovereignty and pushed for native assimilation
Who: United Fruit Company, Andrew Carnegie
When: Late 1800s
Where: Businesses across the US and Latin America
What: The consolidation of numerous production functions, from the extraction of raw materials to the distribution and marketing of the finished products, under the direction of one firm.
Why: Helped to eliminate competition and allowed for a few firms to become fabulously wealthy
Chinese Exclusion Act
Who: Chinese Immigrants
What: Act that suspended Chinese immigration, limited the civil rights of resident Chinese, and forbade their naturalization.
Why: Demonstrated the willingness of the Federal Government to enact racist and nativist legislation in the US
Knights of Labor
Who: Terence V Powderly
What: Labor Union that included skilled and unskilled workers irrespective of race or gender
Why: fought for radical reform measures such as a graduated income tax, end of child labor, homesteading land, 8 hour day, monetary reform, and the end of contract labor. Crushed by the response to the Haymarket Square bombing.
American Federation of Labor
Who: Samuel Gompers
What: Union formed for organized, skilled workers, along craft lines and emphasized a few workplace issues rather than a broad social program.
Why: Lobbied for the creation of Labor Day and became politically active to make bread and butter changes in the workplace
Who: Mark Twain
When: late 1800s
Where: Upper class neighborhoods
What: Term that refers to the shallow display and worship of wealth characteristic of the period
Why: Led to a relatively small number of families that controlled the vast majority of the nation's wealth. Created a new style of "conspicuous consumption"
Interstate Commerce Commission
Who: The President
Where: Federal Government, Executive Branch
What: Law that expanded federal power over business by prohibiting pooling and discriminatory rates by railroads and establishing the ICC
Why: It marked a shift in the balance of power from the states to the federal government
Who: Poor farmers
Where: rural South and West
What: A broad mass movement in the rural South and West during the late 19th century, encompassing several organizations and demanding economic and political reforms.
Why: Will lead to the development of the People's Party (Populists)
Who: Striking workers
Where: Martinsburg, West Virginia
What: Unsuccessful railroad strike to protest wage cuts and the use of federal troops against strikers
Why: The first nationwide work stoppage in American history. prompted the creation of the national guard
Who: Jacob Coxey
Where: Ohio to Washington DC
What: A protest march of unemployed workers, led by Populist Coxey, demanding inflation and a public works program during the depression for the 1890s.
Why: Demonstrated the public's growing impatience with government apathy toward the unemployed
National American Women Suffrage Association
Who: Mary E Lease, Frances Willard.
Where: Great Plains and the West.
What: Organization formed to coordinate the ultimately successful campaign to achieve women's right to vote.
Why: Right to vote in Colorado in 1893. The 19th amendment will also eventually pass.
Where: American West
What: Philosophy that the government should expand the money supply by purchasing an coining all silver offered to it
Why: Wanted silver to level inflation to help farmers repay their debts and help to grow the economy.
Plessy v Ferguson
Who: Supreme Court, Homer Plessy
Where: Supreme Court, Federal government
What: Decision to hold Louisiana's railroad segregation law up as legal in that it did not violate the Constitution as long as the railroads or state provided equal accommodations
Why: Will maintain separate but equal until Brown v Board in 1954
Who: Jane Adams, Florence Kelly, Teddy Roosevelt
Where: US, big cities
What: Important movement that challenged traditional relationships and attitudes.
Why: Will lead to many legislative changes such as the Pure food and Drug Act, 16, 17, 18, and 19th amendments, settlement houses, etc.
Who: Upton Sinclair, Jacob Riis
Where: Urban areas
When: Turn of the century(early 1900s)
What: Journalism exposing economic, social, and political evils, so named by Teddy Roosevelt for its "raking the muck" of America Society
Why: Will use their writing to influence Progressive changes in American Society
Who: Western Progressives
When: early 1900s
What: Procedure by which citizens can introduce a subject for legislation, usually through a petition signed by a specific number of voters
Why: Weakened political parties and improved the democratic process for the American people
Who: International Workers of the World(IWW), Eugene Debs, William Haywood
Where: Chicago, lumber camps
What: Socialists, denounced the AFL because it was exclusionary. Focused on laborers.
Why: Showed the radical branch of union organization.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Who: WEB DuBois
Where: New South
What: Interracial organization dedicated to restoring African American political and social rights
Why: Will lead struggles to overturn legal and economic barriers to equal opportunity
Sherman Antitrust Act
Who: Congress, Teddy Roosevelt
What: designed to restore competition by encouraging small business and outlawing "every... combination... in restraint of trade or commerce"
Why: Will lead to the dissolution of monopolies and establish Teddy Roosevelt as the "trustbusting" president. Expanded the regulatory power of the president. Will also eventually reduce union power.
Federal Reserve Act
Who: Woodrow Wilson
What: Revised banking and currency by extending limited government regulation through the creation of the Federal Reserve System
Why: Created 12 reserve banks and force banks to keep a percentage of cash as reserve$. Diminished the power of large private banks
Who: Teddy Roosevelt
Where: Latin America
What: Policy asserting US authority to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations; an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine.
Why: Used to justify intervention in the Domincan Republic. and later in Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua and Mexico
Who: John Hay
What: American policy of seeking equal trading and investment opportunities in foreign nations or regions.
Why: Will lead Teddy Roosevelt to become involved in the Russo-Japanese War in order to prevent an upset in trade balance.
Committee on Public Information
Who: Woodrow Wilson, George Creel
Where: US media
What: Government agency during WW1 that sought to shape public opinion in support of the war effort through newspapers, pamphlets, speeches, films, and other media.
Why: Anti-German, Anti "hyphenated American" massive propaganda machine campaign.
War Industries Board
Who: Woodrow Wilson, Bernard Baruch
Where: Federal Government
What: The federal agency that reorganized industry for maximum efficiency and productivity during WW1
Why: Proved to be a major innovation in expanding the regulatory power of the federal government. Balanced price controls and profits.
Who: Eugene Debs
Where: Federal Government
What: Amendment to the Espionage Act. Broad law restricting criticism of America's involvement in WW1 or its government, flag, military, taxes or officials
Why: Violated people's civil liberties, especially Socialists, pacifists, radical labor activists, etc. It was upheld by Schenck v US because o0f "clear and present danger."
The Great Migration
Who: Southern blacks(tenant farmers)
When: WW1 1914-1920
Where: South to northern cities
What: The mass movement of African Americans from the rural South to the Urban North, spurred especially by new job opportunities during WW1 and the 1920s
Why: Most workers had to settle for low paying industrial jobs. Diversified the north. Harlem Renaissance
Who: Wilson, France, England, Germany
When: June 28, 1919
Where: Hall of Mirrors, Versailles
What: The treaty ending WW1 and establishing the League of Nations.
Why: The US rejected the treaty and signed its own with Germany. Will also refuse to join the League of Nations
Who: A Mitchell Palmer
Where: The US
What: Post WW1 public hysteria over Bolshevik influence in the the US directed against labor activism, radical dissenters, and some ethnic groups.
Why: Demonstrated a violation of the constitution on minority groups, Hurt unions. Harmed the women's movement and its allegiances with Socialist and labor groups
Who: Al Capone
When: 1920 (1919)
Where: Department of the Treasury, Large cities
What: Law defining the liquor forbidden under the 18th amendment and giving enforcement responsibilities to the prohibition bureau of the department of the treasury.
Why: the bureau was understaffed and led to an increase in organized crime, bootlegging, speakeasies, and gang activity
Who: AFL, Eugenics supporters
What: Act setting a maximum of 357,000 new immigrants each year
Why: codified the principle of racial exclusion in immigration and naturalization law. Quota system
Who: Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Alain Locke, Marcus Garvey
Where: Harlem, NY
What: A new AA cultural awareness that flourished in literature, art, and music
Why: The "New Negro". result of the Great Migration. Because of advancements in mass media, Americans around the country were exposed to black music from the HR
Who: Army Veterans, Douglas MacArthur
Where: Washington DC
What: Gathering in DC demanding payment of service bonuses not due until 1945.
Why: Demonstrated the desperation during the Great Depression and the willingness of the Federal Government to use force against protesters
National Labor Relations Act
Who: Wagner Act, Robert Wagner(NY)
What: Act establishing federal guarantee of right to organize trade unions and collective bargaining.
Why: Provided a boon for union growth, especially in previously unorganized industries such as automobiles, steel and textiles. It set the stage for the sit-down strike in Flint, Missouri and for General Motors' eventual acceptance of union labor in its factories.
New Deal coalition
Who: Democratic Party
Where: Across the US
What: Coalition that included traditional-minded white southern Democrats, big-city political machines, industrial workers of all races, trade unionists, and many Depression hit farmers.
Why: Demonstrated the growing strength of the Democratic Party and drew many minorities from the Republican party to the Democrats. Also showed the overwhelming support of Roosevelt and his New Deal policies.
Neutrality Act of 1939
Where: Allied Countries
What: Permitted the sale of arms to Britain, France, and China
Why: Although American anti-war sentiment kept the US neutral, the Federal Government recognized the need for a German defeat in order to keep the US secure, "All aid short of war."
Who: Roosevelt, Allies, Great Britain
What: An arrangement for the transfer of war supplies including food, machinery, and services to nations whose defense was considered vital to the defense of the US
Why: Demonstrated that a formal declaration of war was only a matter of time.
War Powers Act
What: Act that gave the US president the power to reorganize the federal government and create new agencies; to establish programs censoring news, information, and abridging civil liberties; to seize foreign-owned property; and award government contracts without bidding.
Why: Lasted long after war's end
Who: 442nd regiment
When: WW2 1941-45
Where: US, Italy, France
What: US citizens born of immigrant Japanese parents
Why: Most decorated regiment in the war.
Battle of the Bulge
When: December 1944
What: German offensive that penetrated deep into Belgium (creating a bulge). Allied forces, while outnumbered, attacked from the north and south. By January 1945, the German forces were destroyed or routed, but not without some 77,000 Allied casualties.
Why: Exhausted the German capacity for counterattack. Bloodiest single campaign for the Americans since the battle of Gettysburg.
Who:General MacArthur, Kamikazes
Where: Pacific Ocean
What: Pacific campaigns that were the American naval version of Blitzkrieg
Why: Helped secure land and work towards Japan
Who: FDR, Churchill, and Stalin.
When: February 1945
Where: Yalta, Black Sea
What: Meeting between Allied leaders to plan final stages of WW2, postwar arrangements, UN terms of membership, and Soviet entry into the Pacific war, which FDR supported.
Why: Symbolized strength of wartime alliance and outlined future "spheres of influence" in which the future Europe and Asia would find itself.
International Monetary Fund
Who: FDR and his advisors
When: Julyl 1944
Where: Bretton Woods, New Hampshire
What: US's attempt to establish control over the postwar global economy by dictating capitalist terms of reconstruction and aid.
Why: Would allow the US to help reconstruct Europe while simultaneously forming allies against the Soviets by determining where and how aid was given
Who: President Truman
When: March 12 1947
Where: US Congress
What: President Truman spoke to Congress about the impending Soviet threat in the Mediterranean and the possibility of the entire region falling under socialist doctrine. Congress approved a $400 million appropriation in order to stave off the communist rebels and ended the uprising.
Why: The decision to grant money to fight communism abroad, not just in Mediterranean
Who: Secretary of State George C. Marshall
When: June 5 1947
Where: Harvard University
What: Federal plan to give money to Europe directly, and not just through IMF or WB, in order to further encourage capitalist market growth.
Why: A subversive attempt of the US to fight communism by using grants in order to create bilateral agreements with reconstructing nations and creating more strife with the Soviets.
Who: Senators Taft and Hartley
Where: US Congress
What: An anti-union congressional act, it ended the closed shop, the secondary boycott, and the use of union dues for political activities. Also made union officials give swear they were not communists.
Why: A newly republican congressional attempt to curtail union strength and also promote Cold War policies while simultaneously fighting the New Deal.
Who: Southern Democrats in Congress
When: 1948 election
Where: US Congress
What: Democratic southerners in support of States' Rights ticket
Why: even while Democratic economic values are shifting, Antebellum South is still prevalent in Congress
Who: Senator Joesph R. McCarthy
When: February 9, 1950
Where: Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, W V
What: Senator McCarthy argues that the US has been sold out by card carrying communists in the state department
Why: While initial attack was only State Department, the fear of communism spread and led to a political witch hunt throughout the government that was more aimed at New Deal Democrats, Civil rights organizations, women's organizations, and homosexuals
Who: US Congress/Veterans
What: "The Servicemen's Readjustment Act" offered stipends covering tuition and living expense to veterans attending vocational schools or college.
Why: would have led to greatest increase in higher education in the US by allowing the veterans to attain training and schooling not otherwise available to them. Set new standards for returning veterans to war.
Who: South Korea (US backed) VS North Korea (Chinese and Soviet backed)
Where: Korean Peninsula, 38th parallel
What: Communist-controlled north attempt to reunite the 2 countries under communist rule. MacArthur's decision to push back past 38th Parallel led to Chinese involvement and led to stalemate in 1951
Why: US's failed attempt to show power of democracy after beating back the communist offensive, also incorporated China into Cold War. Exemplified use of excessive executive power.
Federal Highway Act of 1956
Who: Federal Government, Eisenhower
Where: Across the US
What: Measure that provided federal funding to build a nationwide system of interstate and defense highways
Why: Led to the decline of mass transit and inner cities
Alliance for Progress
Where: Latin America
What: Program of economic aid to Latin America during the Kennedy Administration
Why: A type of Marshall Plan for L.A. Did not really create any social change.
Bay of Pigs
Who: Kennedy, Castro
What: Site in Cuba of an unsuccessful landing by 1,400 anti-Castro Cuban refugees
Why: Demonstrated how the CIA had failed to fully understand the Cuban Revolution
Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Who: Kennedy, Khrushcehev
Where: US, GB, USSR
What: Treaty signed by the US, Britain, and Moscow, outlawing Nuclear testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water.
Why: Eased anxiety about radioactive fallout, Underground testing continued. Showed a willingness to compromise
Brown v the Board of Education
Who: Olivia Brown, Supreme Court
What: Case that overturned Plessy V. Ferguson, the separate but equal doctrine. Separate schools declared unconstitutional
Why: forced school integration. Another victory for the civil rights movement
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Who: MLK Jr.
What: Black Civil rights organization which orchestrated nonviolent strikes and peaceful protests around the nation.
Why: Large role in the American Civil Rights movement. Successfully gained more rights for African Americans
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Who: Lyndon Johnson
What: Federal legislation that outlawed discrimination in public accommodation and employment on the basis of race, skin color, sex, religion , or national origin
Why:This act also set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to end racial discrimination in employment.
Who: Black and White Civil Rights workers
What: Voter registration effort in rural Mississippi organized by black and white civil rights workers in 1964
Why: Set up dozens of freedom schools, houses, and community centers to aid blacks
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Who: Lyndon Johnson and Congress
What: Request to Congress from President Lyndon Johnson in response to North Vietnamese torpedo boat attacks in which he sought authorization for "all necessary measures" to protect American forces and stop further aggression
Why: shows expansion of the executive branch of government during the war
Free Speech Movement
Who: UC Berkeley students
Where: UC Berkeley, CA
What: Student movement at the University of California, Berkeley, formed in 1964 to protest limitations on political activities on campus
Why: Student demonstrations grew with the escalation of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Hundreds of campuses were disrupted or closed down by antiwar protests.
Who: Congress, Lyndon B. Johnson
What: basic medical insurance for the elderly, financed through the federal government; program created in 1965
Why: Helped out older adults and disabled people with medical care that they could afford before.
American Indian Movement
Who: James Haley, Lyndon B. Johnson
Where: Minnesota, US
What:Group of Native-American political activists who used confrontation with the federal government to publicize their case for Indian rights
Why: Native Americans started to join in the Civil Rights movement. Trail of Broken Treaties
My Lai Massacre
Who: Lyndon B. Johnson
What: Killing of 22 Vietnamese civilians by U.S. forces during a 1968 search-and-destroy missions
Why: increased the voice of opposition of the citizens against the the Vietnam war.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
Where: U.S. and Soviet Union
What: The United States and the Soviet Union to slow the nuclear arms race
Why:It was a significant step toward reducing Cold War tensions and bringing about detente
Environmental Protection Agency
What:Federal agency to oversee environmental monitoring and cleanup programs
Why: Protected against pollution and destruction
Who: President Nixon
What: A complex scandal involving attempts to cover up illegal actions taken by administration officials
Why: It lead to the resignation of President Richard Nixon and there was no solid proof that he ordered any illegal activities.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Where: Asia, Africa, Latin America
What: Cartel of oil-producing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America that gained substantial power over the world economy in the mid- to late-1970s by controlling the production and rice of oil.
Why: The embargo caused a worldwide oil shortage.
Who: President Reagan
What: Reduction or removal of government regulations and encouragement of direct competition in many important industries and economic sectors.
Why: The policy began to recover the economy in 1983.
Who: President John F. Kennedy
What: A set of policies to open opportunities in business and education for members of minority groups and women by allowing race and sex to be factors included in decisions to hire, award contracts, or admit students to higher education programs.
Why: Intended to help students of color, but angry whites thought it was racist against them because of the quotas being set up in colleges for students less fortunate than whites.
Roe v Wade
Who: Supreme Court
Where: Supreme Court
What: U.S. Supreme Court decision (1973) that disallowed state laws prohibiting abortion during the first three months (trimester) of pregnancy and establishing guidelines for abortion in the second and third trimesters.
Why: prompted a national debate of whether or not abortion is okay. Argument has continued ever since.
Camp David Accords
Who: Carter, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat
What: Agreement signed by Israel and Egypt that set the formal terms for peace in the Middle East.
Where: Camp David, Maryland
Why: Egypt became the first Arab nation to recognize the nation of Israel. Israel withdrew its troops from the Sinai territory taken from Egypt in the Six- Day War of 1967.
Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981
What: A major revision of the federal income tax system.
Why:Beginning of the deregulation movement, scaled economy in more conservative direction
Strategic Defense Initiative
Who: President Reagan
What: President Reagan's program, announced in 1983, to defend the United States against nuclear missile attack with untested weapons systems and sophisticated technologies.
Why:shows that Reagan's administration is pretty crazy.
Operation Desert Storm: Gulf War
Who: George H.W. Bush
Where:Kuwait, Saudi Arabia
What: US stormed into Kuwait to kick out Suddam Hussain
North American Free Trade Association
Who: Mexico, Canada, US
Where: North American continent
What: Agreed not to put Tariffs on goods traded between these countries
Why: promotes free enterprise and more global world market
Contract with America
What: platform proposing a sweeping reduction in the role and activities of the federal government on which many Republican candidates ran for Congress in 1994