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Mass Communication Chapters 1 - 3
Terms in this set (73)
How we socially interact at a number of different levels through messages. It's a process.
Communication you have with yourself. How you assign meaning to the world around you. Most prevalent form of communication.
Response from receiver of message, occurs constantly.
Communication that is either intentional or accidental, verbal or nonverbal, between two people. This is constant when others are around, and there are many opportunities for feedback.
Communication in which one person is communicating with audience of two or more people. Roles of communicator and audience are constantly changing.
When an individual or institution uses technology to send a message to a large, mixed audience, most of whose members are not known to the sender. Traditionally limited feedback opportunities, but they're growing.
The technological tools, or channels, used to transmit the messages of mass communication.
Sender Message Channel Receiver (SMCR) Model / Transmission Model
A dated, simplified model that is still useful in identifying the players in the mass communication process.
Major source of media criticism because they could be heard as loudly as mainstream media.
Content being transmitted by the sender to the receiver
The process of turning the sender's ideas into a message and preparing the message for transmission.
Medium used to transmit encoded message.
The audience for mass communication message.
Process of translating a signal from a mass medium into a form that the receiver can understand and then interpreting the messages meaning itself.
Audience composed of a mix of people who differ in age, sex, income, education, ethnicity, race, religion, etc.
Interference with the transmission of a message. This can take the form of semantic (receiver doesn't understand), mechanical, or environmental noise.
Audience the sender does not personally know.
A model of the mass communication process that treats media usage as an interactive ritual engaged in by audience members. Looks at how / why receivers consume media messages.
Model of mass communication process that looks at how media attention can make a person, concept, or thing become important, regardless of what is said about it.
Critical theory model of mass communication process that looks at how audience members derive and create meaning out of media content as they decode the messages.
First major communication network:
Roman Catholic Church
The printing press was invented in (Date) _________
1450s (the movable type)
Audience members understanding of the media industry's operation, the messages delivered by the media, the roles media play in society, and how audience members respond to these media and their messages.
Four parts (Dimensions) of media literacy:
Seven Truths of Mass Media
1.) The media are essential components of our lives
2.) There are no mainstream media
3.) Everything from the margin moves to the center
4.) Nothing's new: everything that happened in the past will happen again.
5.) New media are always scary
6.) Activism and analysis are not the same thing
7.) There is no "they"
Indirect Effects Model
People react differently to the media (such as, people don't necessarily believe EVERYTHING they read online)
Direct Effects Model
Media "injects" people with message leading to message creator's desired action. (Inaccurate)
Other names for Direct Effects Model:
-- 1-step model
-- Magic 'Bullet'
-- Hypodermic Needle
Influential community members who invest substantial amounts of time learning about their own area of expertise, such as politics. Less well-informed friends and family members frequently turn to them for advice about the topic.
Media--------> Opinion Leaders -------> Audiences
Audiences --- Audiences
People who pay the most attention to a campaign (are / are not) unlikely to change opinions.
Critical / Cultural Model
Poses the question: who controls the media?
Study of where people live
Study of audience members' age, race, gender, etc.
Combo of demographics, lifestyle, characteristics, and product usage.
Lasswell and Wright's societal functions of mass media:
--Transmission of Social Heritage
How the media help us extend our senses to perceive more of the world surrounding us. Can be good or bad.
The process by which media coverage makes an individual gain prominence in the eyes of the public.
Process of selecting, evaluating, and interpreting events to give structure to the news. Media assist this process by persuasive communication through editorials, commentary, advertising, and propaganda and by providing cues that indicate each news item's importance.
Socialization / Transmission of Social Heritage
The process of educating young people and new members about the values, social norms, and knowledge of a group or society.
Media communication intended primarily to amuse the audience.
Segmentation / Demassification
Content is increasingly directed to specific segments of the mass audience.
Large groups of media are increasingly controlled by small number of corporations. Benefits corporations, but may not benefit consumers.
Global Village (McLuhan)
As communication technology / mass media increases, we become increasingly connected because we all receive similar information. May increase solidarity and understanding but increase anxiety and overload. May contribute to the loss of unique cultures.
The erosion of distinction among media, generally due to increasing functionality of a particular media / communication technology. (such as all the uses of a cell phone)
Theory of media effects that says that the media don't tell the public what to think but rather what to think about -- thus the terms of public discourse are set by what is covered in the media.
Uses and Gratifications Theory
An approach to studying mass communication that looks at the reasons why audience members choose to spend time with the media in terms of the wants and needs of the audience members that are being fulfilled.
Social Learning Theory
Process by which individuals learn by observing the behaviors of others and the consequences of those behaviors.
The process by which individuals produce meaning through interaction based on socially agreed-upon symbols. (Such as meaning of yellow ribbon)
Spiral of Silence
A theory suggesting that people want to see themselves as holding a majority opinion and will remain silent if they think they have a minority opinion, making this opinion seem less prevalent than it is.
An approach to studying mass media that says the forms the media use to present the world become the forms we use to perceive the world.
An approach to analyzing the effects of TV viewing that argues that watching significant amounts of TV alters the way an individual views the nature of the surrounding world.
The perception of many heavy TV watchers of violent programs that the world is a more dangerous and violent place than facts and stats bear out.
A model of political campaign effects that attributes a candidate's success to how well his or her basic message resonates with and reinforces voters' preexisting political feelings.
A model of the effects of a political campaign that looks at the campaign as a competition for the hearts and minds of voters.
Gans's Basic Journalistic Values
Inexpensive, widely circulated papers that become popular in the 19th century. They were the first American media to be supported primarily through advertising revenue. This kicked off the newspaper industry.
Americans began to really depend on national TV news in the (decade) ___________.
Where the combined strengths of 2 items is greater than the sum of their individual strengths. In media, this means that a large company can use the strengths of its various divisions to successfully market its content. (Think Disney)
Controlling all aspects of a media project, including production, delivery to consumers in multiple formats, and the promotion of the product through other media. (Think News Corporation)
Local Cable Television Systems
The companies that provide cable television service directly to consumers' homes.
List the "Big 6"
--Viacom and CBS
The portion of a distribution curve where a limited number of people are interested in buying a lot of different products.
The portion of a distribution curve where a large number of people are interested in buying a limited number of products.
High-speed channels for transmitting multimedia content into the home via cable or wireless connections.
News Corporation owns:
--Wall Street Journal
Time Warner owns:
--NOT the cable company!!!!!
--CBS television network
--Simon and Shuster
--Country Music Television
Comcast / NBC Universal owns:
*NOT part of the Big 6!!!!
--The Weather Channel
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