-Sources: Fruits and Veggies. Primarily found as Ascorbic Acid
-Functions/Mechs: Collagen Synthesis, Antioxidant, Neurotransmitter Synthesis, Colds: ↑ Immune Function
-Deficiency/Toxicity: Leads to SCURVY: *H*emorrhagic signs, *H*yperkeratosis, *H*ypochondriasis, HHeficiency/Toxicity*: Leads to SCURVY: *H*emorrhagic signs, *H*yperkeratosis, *H*ypochondriasis, HHeficiency/Toxicity*: Leads to SCURVY: *H*emorrhagic signs, *H*yperkeratosis, *H*ypochondriasis, *H*ematological abnormalities
Tox: Minor side-effects usually from supplements: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.
-Any Extra Notes: Antioxidant Activity! Its the Hydrophilic Antioxidant!
-Sources: Milk/Dairy, Eggs, Meat, Liver, Legumes, Fortified Grains
-Functions/Mechs: Facilitation of the release of energy from carbs, pro, and fat (as coenzyme). Krebs cycle activity, Electron transfer mechs., accepting electrons in biochemical rxns.
-Deficiency/Toxicity: Ariboflavinosis: cheilosis (cracked mouth), glossitis (pain/red tongue) photophobia (sensitive to light), edema (swelling)
Tox: non reported, No UL
-Any Extra Notes: It's a component of FAD (bound to the phosphate group of an ADP molecule) and FMN!
Its what gives the yellow/orange color of Bvitamin supps and urine!
-Sources: Fish and meats, enriched grains, Supplement as Nicotinamide.
-Functions/Mechs: Coenzymes in Redox Rxns: oxidative rxns, reductive biosynthesis (involved in glycolysis, krebs cycle, β oxy, OH metab., ETC
Non-Redox: donor of ADP-ribose for post-translational modif. of proteins, Formation of cyclic ADP-ribose
-Deficiency/Toxicity: Pellagra (4Ds: *D*ermatitis, *D*ementia, *D*iarrhea, DDeficiency/Toxicity*: Pellagra (4Ds: *D*ermatitis, *D*ementia, *D*iarrhea, DDeficiency/Toxicity*: Pellagra (4Ds: *D*ermatitis, *D*ementia, *D*iarrhea, *D*eath)
Tox: side effects w/ doses >1g/day (flushing), niacin flush: skin flush. Itching, dry skin, rashes
-Any Extra Notes: Niacin & Nicotinamide are both precursurs of the co-enzymes NAD & NADP
-Sources: Present in almost ALL foods, Organ meats, mushrooms, broccoli.
-Functions/Mechs: Component of Coenzyme A nutrient metab!!! Prosthetic group for acyl carrier protein ACP (FA synthesis), acetylation of proteins, sugars, drugs
-Deficiency/Toxicity: fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritable, "Burning feet syndrome", most likely to occur w/ multiple deficiencies (B5, B6, B12)
Tox: none reported
-Any Extra Notes:
-Sources: Sirloin, Salmon, light meat chicken highest. Plant foods
-Functions/Mechs: Coenzyme role: transamination, dehydration, decarboxylation, cleavage, glycogen degradation
Non-coenzyme: modulates gene expression
-Deficiency/Toxicity: rare, eldery are at risk, ↑ alc consumption, people on certain drugs
Tox: sensory & peripheral neuropathy, UL=100mg/day
-Any Extra Notes: Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (PLP) is a phosphorylated derivative of B6 and is the active form PLP acts as coenzyme in many rxns