31 terms

Periodic Table & Trends

Organizing the periodic table and periodic trends.
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periods
horizontal rows on the periodic table
groups
vertical columns on the periodic table
alkali metals
Group 1A, very reactive
alkaline earth metals
Group 2A, reactive
transition metals
elements with Group B roman numerals, have electron configurations in the d sublevel
inner transition metals
elements at the bottom of the periodic table, have electron configurations in the f sublevel
halogens
Group 7A, very reactive, also called salt-makers
noble gases
Group 8A, non reactive because s and p sublevels are full
atomic radius
half the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom, these are active in bonding
cation
positively charged ion formed when electrons are lost, formed by metals
anion
negatively charged ion formed when electrons are gained, formed by nonmetals
metal
Element that is shiny, generally solid at room temperature, a conductor of heat/electricity, and is ductile and malleable. Found on the left of the zig-zag line.
nonmetal
Elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature, may be brittle. Found on the right of the zig-zag line.
metalloids
Elements that have some properties of metals and some of nonmetals, like semi-conductive. These border the zig-zag line.
periodic law
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements with similar properties are grouped together.
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom
electronegativity
the ability of an atom to attract an electron when in a chemical bond
Henry Mosely
ordered the periodic table by increasing atomic number, this is used today
Demitri Mendeleev/Meyer
ordered the periodic table by increasing atomic mass, this is no longer used today
shielding effect
as energy levels are added, the distance of the valence electrons from the nucleus increases. Additional energy levels block the nucleus from attracting/holding its valence electrons
Atomic radius: group trend
increases down the group-as more energy levels are added the distance from nucleus increases
Atomic radius: Period trend
decreases across the period-as protons increase, more protons pull the same energy levels in closer
Ionization Energy: group trend
decrease down the group-as more energy levels are added the shielding effect increases and it takes less energy to remove an electron
Ionization Energy: period trend
increase across a period-as protons increase, pull on valence electrons in the same E level increases, making it more difficult to remove an electron
Electronegativity: group trend
decrease down the group-as more energy levels are added the shielding effect increases and protons are too far away to attract electrons
Electronegativity: period trend
increase across a period-as protons increase, the size decreases allowing the protons attract electrons
1st/2nd/3rd Ionization Energy
Energy required to take one, then another, then another electron. Always increases from 1st-3rd.
Jump in Ionization Energy
A large jump in ionization energy will occur after an element has the same electron configuration as a noble gas
Most electronegative element
Fluorine
Least electronegative element
Francium