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Arts and Humanities
Mass Comm Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (55)
the process of creating shared meaning
the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences
the world made meaningful, socially constructed and maintained through communication, it limits as well as liberates us, differentiates as well as unites us, defines our realities and thereby shapes the ways we think, feel, and act
the idea that machines and their development drive economic and cultural change
the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and utilize mass communication
the process of elimination gatekeepers between artists and its audiences
Mixed genre conventions
being more than one thing (Meredith, the journalist, talk show host, and showman, example of this)
multiple points of access
ability of a media-literate consumer to access or approach media content from a variety of personally satisfying directions
the erosion of traditional distinctions among media
the increase in the ownership of media outlets by non media companies
increasing the amount of advertising and mixing commercial and noncommercial media content
audiences for specific media content becoming smaller and increasingly homogeneous
Economies of scale
concept that relative cost declines as the size of the endeavor grows
the integration, for a fee, of specific branded products into media content
create messages for others, anyone who produces media content
someone who absorbs any form of media
audiences consume content at a time predetermined by the producer and distributor
when someone in authority limits publication or access to it
possessing the ability to read but being unwilling to do so
POD (print on demand)
publishing method whereby publishers store books digitally for instant printing, binding, and delivery once ordered
Mass market paperbacks
are sold on racks in drugstores, supermarkets, and airports as well as book stores
books published very soon after some well-publicized public event
newspapers in the 1830s selling for one penny
separating editorials and advertising within newspapers
the fifth step in the critical process, it involves actively working to create the media world that best serves democracy
five steps to critical process: description, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, and engagement
Circulation (newspapers and magazines)
promoting sales of the newspaper
ads that appear in magazines and take on the appearance of genuine editorial content
publications specifically designed for an individual company seeking to reach a narrowly defined audience
movies produced with full intention of producing several sequels
sponsor financing of movies to advance a manufacturer's product
a broadcasting station that aligns itself with a network
file compression software that permits streaming of digital audio and video data
technique for transferring data so that it can be processed as a steady and continuous stream; the simultaneous downloading and accessing (playing) of digital audio or video data
a channel with broad information-carrying capacity
stores user's music collection in the cloud to save local storage space and enable streaming to multiple devices
a disc jockey on a talk-radio show who expresses opinions in a deliberately offensive or provocative way
German blacksmith and inventor, known for developing the first movable printing press (for newspapers and such)
Industrial Revolution's impact on information and entertainment
print was responsible for building and disseminating bodies of knowledge, leading to scientific and technological developments and the refinement of new machines
Industrialization reduced the time necessary to complete work, and this created something previously unknown to most working- leisure time
When workers left their jobs in agriculture to work in newly industrialized factories, the workers had more leisure time and more money to spend on their leisure. People began becoming more literate and the audience for printed information and entertainment grew.
Newspapers in the 1830s
penny press was popular in the 1830s, as it was newspapers that sold for one penny. The New York Sun was the first of the penny papers. (Benjamin Day)
There were soon penny papers in all the major cities, James Gordon Bennett's New York Morning Herald was among the most important.
Ignoring the impact of media on our lives
this would be dumb because we would be ignorant because media has such a big impact on our lives
The causes of the increase in the number of readers in the US by 1900
yellow journalism was early 20th century journalism emphasizing sensational sex, crime, and disaster news. It was very successful at first, and other papers around the world adopted all or part of its style.
The years between the era of yellow journalism and the coming of television were a time of remarkable growth in the development of newspapers. From 1910 to the beginning of WW2, daily newspaper subscriptions doubled and ad revenues tripled. The modern newspaper was born
a cheap, popular novel, typically a melodramatic romance or adventure story
In 1860, Irwin and Erastus Beadle began publishing novels that sold for 10 cents. They were inexpensive, and because they were concentrated on frontier and adventure stories, they attracted growing numbers of readers.
Harry Potter, both in terms of readership and censorship
censorship happens when someone in authority limits publication or access to it. Harry Potter is among the library and school books most frequently targeted books by modern censors according to the American Library Association Office of Intellectual Freedom and the American Civil Liberties Union.
People wanted Harry Potter banned because they believed that the books promoted a religion and thus for a public school library to hold them would violate the separation of church and state
Positive results of book publishing conglomeration
The rich parent company can infuse the imprint with necessary capital, enabling it to attract better authors or to take gambles on new writers that would, in the past, have been impossible.
Another plus is that the corporate parent's other media holdings can be used to promote and repackage the books for greater profitability.
Yellow journalism and its colorful newspapers owners
yellow journalism is an early 20th century journalism emphasizing sensational sex, crime, and disaster news. Contained sensational sex, crime, and disaster news, giant headlines, heavy use of illustrations, and reliance on cartoons and color.
Public reaction to the excesses of yellow journalism, soon led to its decline, but traces of its popular features remain. Large headlines, big front-page pictures, extensive use of photos and illustrations, and cartoons are characteristics even of today's best newspapers.
National daily newspapers of note, including USA Today, New York Times, Washington Post, etc.
USA Today calls itself "The Nation's Newspaper" and all these newspapers are very credible and popular amongst everyone and everyone loves them
Internet's impact on newspaper revenues
revenue has definitely decreased for newspapers because there are many newspaper outlets online that offer articles for free
Impacts that are troubling films and driving revenues down (we voted on them in class)
streaming movies, Redbox/Netflix/Hulu and concession stand sales prices increases
Silent movies in relation to new immigrants
At the beginning of the 20th century, generous immigration rules, combined with political and social unrest abroad, encouraged a flood of European immigrants who congregated in US cities where the jobs were and where people like themselves who spoke their language lived.
Foreign political unrest proved to be a boom to the infant US movie business. American movies, produced in huge numbers for the hungry home audience, were ideal for overseas distribution. Little had to be changed to satisfy foreign moviegoers.
Negative impacts of silent movies
Silent movies such as The Birth of Nations represented the basest aspects of U.S. culture because it included an ugly, racist portrayal of African Americans and a sympathetic treatment of the Ku Klux Klan
The Red Scare
The Scare had its origins in the hyper-nationalism of WW1 as well as the Russian Revolution. It was hysteria over the perceived threat posed by Communists in the US during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States
Relationship to impacts of film to books vs. film to television
The convergence of film with satellite, cable, VOD, pay-per-view, DVD, and Internet streaming has provided immense distribution and exhibition opportunities for the movies. Box office receipts now only make up for 20% of the studios' film revenues. Studios are increasingly prioritizing digital over disc (it is cheaper and Americans spend more money downloading and streaming movies than they do buying discs)
Radio Corporation of America
American Marconi, General Electric, American Telephone & Telegraph, and Westinghouse, each in control of a vital piece of technology, joined to create the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). RCA was a government-sanctioned monopoly, but its creation avoided direct government control of the new medium.
Golden Age of Radio
the number of homes with radios grew from 12 million in 1930 to 30 million in 1940, and half of them had not one but two receivers. Ad revenues rose from $40 million to $155 million over the same period.
The Golden Age of radio shone even more brightly as the US entered WW2 in 1941. Radio was used to sell war bonds, and much content was aimed at boosting the nation's morale. The war increased the desire for news, especially from abroad. Advertising was also reduced in newspapers because of the conflict
The characteristics of pre- and post television radio
Pre-television radio was very popular and many people listened to it as I stated in the last term. When the war ended and radio licenses were granted again, the number of stations grew rapidly to 2,000. Annual ad revenues reached $454 million in 1950, then came television.
Post television radio- network affiliation dropped from 97% in 1945to 50% by the mid-1950s as stations "went local" in the face of television's national dominance. National radio advertising income dipped to $35 million in 1960, the year that television found its way into 90% of US homes.
Radio changed the nature of its relationship with its audiences. Whereas pretelevision radio was characterized by the big national networks, today's radio is dominated by formats, a particular sound characteristic of a local station. Time spent listening has fallen, and listening among young people is in decline.
Radio is local, fragmented, specialized, personal, and mobile.
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