54 terms

ISM Exam #2

ERP Core components
traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations; Accounting and finance, production and materials management, and human resource
ERP extended components
extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations; business intelligence, customer relationship management, supply chain management, and e-business
Customer relationship management CRM
- Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability
Supply Chain Management SCM
Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
several different types of software that sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications.
EAI Middleware
Represents a new approach t by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors
collaboration systems
an IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of Information
- involves shared participation in business processes such as workflow in which knowledge is hardcoded as rules (process collaboration)
unstructured collaboration
includes document exchange, shared whiteboards, discussion forums, and e-mail (information collaboration
content management system
provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment
SOX- Sarbanes Oxley
(ethics and security); defines which records must be stored
workplace monitoring
tracking people's activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed
studying and analyzing right from wrong; good from bad (building blocks of successful business)
the state or quality of being in conformity with the law
a method for confirming users' identities; Something the user knows, Something the user has, Something that is part of the user
- If there is an information security breach and the information was encrypted, the person stealing the information would be unable to read it
If there is an information security breach and the information was encrypted, the person stealing the information would be unable to read
. the assurance that messages and information are available only to those who are authorized to view them
information security policies
the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization
intellectual property
number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law
software piracy
unauthorized copying of software
counterfeit software
a type of software piracy that occurs when fake copies of software are produced in such a way that they appear to be authentic
social engineering
act of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information, rather than by breaking in or using technical cracking techniques
legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting incident
Information security lines of defense
People (information security policy & plan; 5 steps of security plan: Develop the information security policies, Communicate the information security policies, Identify critical information assets and risks, Test and reevaluate risks, Obtain stakeholder support) and Technology (3 primary info security areas- Authentication and authorization, Prevention and resistance, Detection and response)
unsolicited e-mail (accounts for 40% to 60% of most organizations' email, and costs U.S. businesses over $14 billion in 2005)
prevention and resistance
downtime can be costly; Technologies available to help prevent and build resistance to attacks include: Content filtering, Encryption, Firewalls
- hardware and/or software that guards a private network by analyzing the information leaving and entering the network
Data is raw material & unorganized facts that need to be processed
When data are processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information.
characteristics of high quality data
Accuracy, Completeness, Consistency, Uniqueness, Timeliness
redundant data
the duplication of information or storing the same information in multiple places (primary problem: inconsistency)
relational databases
maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses); stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables
physical vs logical
deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device vs. focuses on how users logically access information
a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored (The rows in each table contain the entities)
field or attribute
characteristics or properties of an entity class (The columns in each table contain the attributes)
purpose of a primary key- foreign key
a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table; a primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables
data warehouse
a logical collection of information - gathered from many different operational databases - that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
data mining
the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone. Helps users uncover business intelligence
business intelligence
broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help enterprise users make better business decisions. BI applications include the activities of decision support systems, query and reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP), statistical analysis, forecasting, and data mining
ETL- Extract Transform Load
a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse
drill down
move from summary information to detailed data by focusing in on something
slice and dice
is the ability to look at data warehouse information from different perspectives.
the aggregation of information, and allows simple "roll-ups" (combinations) of interrelated information.
sensitivity analysis
the study of the impact that changes in one part of a model have on other parts of the model.
digital dashboard
integrates information from multiple components
intelligent agents
special-purposed knowledge-based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users
AI (Artificial Intelligence) systems and their commercial applications
simulates human intelligence such as the ability to reason and learn; intelligent system- various commercial applications of artificial intelligence
neutral networks
- attempts to emulate the way the human brain works; Fuzzy logic - a mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information
generic algorithm
an artificial intelligent system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem
expert systems
computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems
Transaction Processing System TPS
basic business system that serves the operational level
Decision Support System DSS,
models information to support managers and business professionals during the decision-making process (models used: Sensitivity analysis, What-if analysis, Goal-seeking analysis)
Executive Information System EIS
a specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization (consolidation, drill down, slice and dice)